IT110 Introduction to Information Technology

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Corona

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for

BE First year

Introduction to Information technology

(IT-110)

According to CBCS Scheme

Corona publication


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First edition with New CBCS Scheme Syllabus

Publisher : Corona Publication, India

Website : http://www.coronapublication.com

Note:

This book has been published for the first year engineering students of RGPV, Bhopal and other Indian Universities, the material provided by the author (s) is original. Every effort is made to ensure accuracy of material. In publishing of this book all the precautions regarding its content and data have been taken care of, but, even then. Neither the author nor the publisher of the book hold any responsibility for any mistakes that, may have inadvertently crept in and not responsible for any controversy.

IT110 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

IT110 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 2-0-0 COURSE OBJECTIVE:

This course introduces students about the basic fundamentals of Information Technology (IT). Students are expected to learn about applications of IT in communication, multimedia, internet and cloud computing.

COURSE CONTENT:

Data and Information: Introduction, Type of data, Simple model of computer.

Data processing using a computer: Introduction to Operating System, Data storage Media, High capacity network storage media.

Introduction to Database Management System; Database modelling; Relational model; Distributed DBMS; Data warehouse, Data mining; Classification of Language and Applications

IT Application in Communication: Network services-telephone services, Cellular telephone services, Radio and TV broadcasting, Audio-Visual conferencing, Video-on-demand.

Internet Technology: Introduction, Working of internet, Introduction to network protocol and topologies, Types of network: LAN, WAN, Web browser.

Internet Services: E-mail, Telnet, FTP, WWW, HTML, URL.

IT Application in Multimedia: Introduction, Components of multimedia and challenges, Video compression, Video coding technology: JPEG, MPEG, And JBIG.

Introduction to cloud computing: Types, Services, Models, Characteristics, Benefits and Challenges, Application, Limitations.

IT Application in E-Commerce and E-Governance: Introduction, Different Types of E- Commerce with examples, Advantages and disadvantages, E-Commerce in India, E- Services, E-Commerce security, Internet security and ethics, Technology issues, Social issues, Introduction to E-Governance, Challenges, Application, advantages, Case study of MP-online and IRCTC

Social impact of information technology: Introduction, Social Uses of World Wide Web, Social networking Services, Privacy, security and integrity of Information ,Disaster recovery Intellectual property rights, IT Enabled Services and careers, Career in information technology, Case study of NPTEL.

UNIT - 1

1. DATA AND INFORMATION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

There are many definitions of Data and Information. But most the definitions don’t define the actual meaning of the words DATA and INFORMATION. They actually define the relation between them. Definition of data is being given in the terms of information and the definition of the information is given in the terms of data, so basically they are defining the relation between the two terms.

For example we are providing some definitions of DATA and INFORMATION.

DATA- Data is unfiltered information.

DATA- Data must be organized to become information.

INFORMATION- Information is data with context.

INFORMATION- Information is redefined or processed data.

Now, from the above definitions, it is quite difficult to understand the real meaning of the terms Data and Information. Now we are providing the actual definitions of the terms.

1.1.1 DATA

Data is like raw material. It is just facts and figures. It can have words, figures, diagrams, numbers, images, videos, sounds etc. But the fact is that all these things are not arranged in a particular manner. So it will be difficult or nearly impossible to understand the things. For example- Let we are having some wood planks, but having only wood planks does not define what is there use? We cannot identify anything just by looking at them.

1.1.2 INFORMATION
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Information is the next stage after data. IT also contains figures, words, numbers, images, diagrams, sounds etc, but here, they are arranged. Arranged means they are in a format that can provide us some knowledge about the things. Information contains meaning. We can understand the meaning of the words or images or sounds etc.

Fig. 1 Data and Information

For example- The wood planks, taken as example for data, are being used to construct a table and the rest material is removed. So the planks were data…and the table is information that we get from the data.

1.2 TYPES OF DATA

As till know we have understand the meaning of data, so now we are moving towards the next topic, that will define that how many types of data are there?

So in the terms of computers we take data as mainly of 2 types, as follows-

1). Qualitative Data

2). Quantitative Data

The Quantitative data is further divided into 2 categories i.e; Discrete Data and Continuous Data.

1.2.1. QUALITATIVE DATA

Qualitative data is the data that arises from the observations that fall in different distinct categories. Qualitative data is something which is not measured in numbers. This type of data is actually discrete, because it has a definite number of categories possible for the observations to fall in.

Example-

Your economic status; it could be either HIGH, MIDDLE or LOW.

Your hair color; it could be BLACK, BROWN, WHITE, etc.

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1.2.2 QUANTITATIVE DATA

Quantitative data is also known as numerical data. That means unlike qualitative data it is measured in numbers. This type of data arises from the observations that are measurements or counts. Quantitative data is further categorized as under-

1). Discrete:- The data is called as discrete data if the measurements are integer values. When we measure something that comes out to be a integer number it is counted as discrete data.

Ex- Number of students in a classroom, Number of subjects

2). Continuous:- The data is called as continuous data if the measurements are not integers, i.e.; when the measurement take a value within a range of values.

Ex- Weight, Age Group

1.3 SIMPLE MODEL OF COMPUTER

A simple model of computer consists of following things-

1) A CPU

2) An Input Device

3) An Output Device

4) Memory

1.3.1 CPU

CPU is central processing unit. It is the most important part of a computer system. It is like the heart of computer machine. A computer cannot be formed without a CPU. A CPU has ALU within itself along with Control Unit, Internal bus and registers. ALU stands for Arithmetic and Logic Unit. An ALU has, Status flags, shifters, complementary, Arithmetic and Boolean logic. The number of registers is not same for every CPU, it varies in different systems. Control Unit is something that coordinates all the operations between I/O devices, memory and ALU. The storage, processing of data between these devices is controlled by the control unit.

1.3.2 MEMORY

Memory is the next important thing in a computer system. A computer system is not able to store any information or data if there is no memory present. This means, that whatever operations we perform on some data is all temporary. If next time we want to perform the same operations on the same data, we have to feed everything again like we are doing so for the first time. Although Von Numen has developed a computer system model without memory but it was not able to store anything. So memory is something that saves all our data within it. Now memory can be divided up to 2 basic levels, i.e; Primary memory and Secondary Memory. The registers are the primary memory, it is very much fast than the secondary memory. Whenever we request a file or a page, it is brought out from the secondary memory to the primary memory and then is given to us to use it.

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Fig3. Block Diagram of a Digital Computer

1.3.3 INPUT DEVICE

Input devices are those device by the help of which we can enter our data to the computer system. Our requests are also being provided to the system by input devices. As we input some data or request something to be performed by the computer system, we give input. Our commands to perform a particular task are also an input. There are many input devices are there to let us provide input, for ex- keyboard, mouse, touchpad, scanner, joystick etc.

1.3.4 OUTPUT DEVICE

Output devices are those devices by which we are able to see our output. We can get the output as a softcopy or as a hardcopy, if we want the output to be seen on the computer screen only, then it is a softcopy, but if we are taking the printout of something then it will be considered as a hardcopy. As we enter some data to the system then definitely we are expecting something out of it, and that something is the result want we desire for. This result is known as our output. Now output devices may include your computer screen, printer etc.

2. DATA PROCESSING USING A COMPUTER

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Data processing using a computer system means how the data travels through the computer. Whenever we enter some data to the system, the computer system do not read the data in the same format. Yes, that’s true, computer system do not understand our language. The language we use to enter the data, whatever it may be, either English or Hindi or any other language, the computer system converts it into the binary format. Binary format means either 0 or 1. Our computers understand only these 0 and 1 and nothing else. So, processing through the computer is not that easy what we think of it.

Firstly we enter some data, expecting some output in reply from the system. Then this data is converted to the binary format. The language we use is called as high level language and the language that computer system understands is called as low level language. This conversion of language is done under the processing unit. But before that, the data entered by us has to go to the buffer. Buffer is something where the data waits for its chance to get the processer. After the conversion, the operations to be performed on them or by them are performed and then the results are again converted to the high level language. Then this result has to wait in the buffer for getting the appropriate output device. And then we get the output either as a printout, or on the computer screen.

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Fig. 4 Data Processing

2.2 INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM

Basically, an operating system is a program that provides the basis for application programs to run. Operating system acts like an interface between the software and the hardware. Most of the people think that operating system is the system software, but actually it a component of the system software. It provides its services to the application software as well as to the hardware. It manages both the hardware and the software. No application can run in your computer if there is no operating system. It is like the very basic component that is required for any computer system to run.

Your hardware like- mouse, keyword are not going to perform the way u have always seen them performing in the absence of operating system. The same goes with the software as well. The interaction that is required between the applications and the hardware is performed by the operating system. For better understanding, let us take the example of typing on our computer system.

As you type on the system, have you ever noticed that sometimes as we hit the key on the keyboard the same time our alphabet is seen on the screen, and sometimes it takes some time to display the alphabet. Well now one thing that we are sure is that, there is something working secretly behind all of this which is making it possible that as we hit the key, we are able to see that alphabet on the computer screen. This secret is Operating System.

When we hit a key of the keyboard, the alphabet is send to a buffer, then, from the buffer the alphabet is processed in the processing unit, then that word is displayed on the screen of the system. Now all this background work is done by the operating system.

2.2.1 TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

There are many types of operating systems as follows-

1) Batch OS – It is a very old operating system. In this case, the user cannot directly interact with the system. A job is prepared and submitted to the system. A job here, is a combination of program, data and control. Jobs are in the form of punch cards. Outputs are generated after some time. This time period could range from hours to months. To speed up processing, operators batched together jobs with similar needs.

2) Single Tasking – Single tasking systems are those systems, where the user can interact with the system. Here, only one job at a time is taken

3) Multi Tasking/Multiprogramming – It increases CPU utilization. Here multiple jobs are taken together. Jobs are executed one by one. There is no multiprogramming, multiple programs are not being executed at the same time, but actually it is the fast execution that makes us feel like they are being executed at same time.

4) Single User – In a single user OS, the basic concept is just that, at a given period of time, only a single user can interact with the system. If a job is being executing, than until it gets complete, the processer do not shares its time with other jobs.

5) Multi User/ Time Sharing – Equal time slots are divided. The sharing is done between the jobs being in execution at a given time. Fast execution between the jobs is actually making this concept work. Response time should be less.

6) Multi Processor – In this type of OS, multiple processors are used. Jobs are executed by different processors. So each processor is executing a different job, and multiple jobs are actually executing at the same time. Here, one processor is called as master, and it manages the rest of the processors. All other processors are called as slaves. It increases the throughput. It also increases the reliability.

7) Distributed OS – This is the type of system that are not located at the same physical location. All the systems are distributed to different physical location. It works with geographically distributed systems. It is case where the networking is also included due to the different locations. These locations can be so close like being in same area of a city or can be far as being into some other country.

8) Embedded OS – Embedded OS are the type of OS, which is designed for performing a particular function. It has its use only for one particular application. Example- ATM machine, it is designed for only back related jobs and cannot do anything else.

9) Real Time – These are the systems that work on the real time situations.

2.3 DATA STORAGE MEDIA

Data storage media is the media required for the storage of data. As we know that there is such a huge amount of data is present, and our computer systems memory is not that much that it can store all the data present. So we need more external space or external memory to store the data. Storage is not only about storing data, but it also stores the instructions and the information. Basically storage media is physical materials on which we store the instructions or the data or the information. Because we have these storage medias in our computer systems, that’s the reason why our hardware is able to work. Not getting the point, well these storage spaces are also responsible to store the software that helps the hardware to work. There are many types of data storage media as follows-

2.3.1 Hard Drive

This is the storage media that counts with the computer, as it is an internal part of the system. Although can also be externally connected and used. It stores all the programs that a computer system needs and also stores the data and information provided by the users.

2.3.2 Floppy Disk

This is a portable storage media. We can save or store our data in it by attaching it with the computer and latter on can it with us anywhere we want.

2.3.3 CD & DVD

This is also considered as a portable storage media but it is far better than its variant floppy disk as it can store more information in it. The size of a CD is greater than that of a floppy disk and the size of a DVD is even more than the CD. These media are of two types. The first type only saves information, which means that you cannot delete the information once saved. The other type is the one where you can do the things i.e; either saving or erasing.

Floppy Disk < CD < DVD
2.3.4 USB Flash Drive

This is the most common type storage media used these days. Its common because it is very much easy to use and even more easy to carry. It also have the advantage of larger space. It have the smallest size among the rest of the options. It can store more information as it has maximum size.

3. INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Database Management System is a system that we use to handle all our data. As we have already learnt that there is huge amount of data present, some of them is useful for us and some of that is not useful for us. But we still have a probability that sometime that not so useful data can also become useful for us. So we always store all the data. Sometimes in the computer system or sometimes in some external storage media. So to maintain the data and to easily get the meaningful data out of it we use database.

Database is a collection of data in the form of tables. Where we can get the information we want and can ignore the rest of the data. Database also makes it easy for us to query the information we want. We do not have to go through the whole data to get our information.

In a database, the rows are called tuples, the whole table is considered to be an entity, the roll no., name, etc are called as attributes of the entity, the values in the rows are known as entity instances and columns are called as fields. The field which is unique for every instance is called as primary key.

For example- Let that we a database of students who got placed in an open campus. Then it may look something like this-

S.No.

Roll No.

First Name

Last Name

10th%

12th%

BE%

Branch

Company

1

09521356

Pooja

Sharma

76

67

7.4

IT

TCS

2

08791312

Sandeep

Singh

68

62

7.1

IT

Wipro

3

09221309

Priyanka

Gupta

61

61

6.9

CS

Yash Tech.

4

09631384

Pawan

Tiwari

69

72

7.7

IT

SnS

5

09301351

Neha

Pathak

77

70

8.2

CS

CNC

6

08191265

Aman

Verma

81

83

8.7

CS

TCS

7

09481375

Sumit

Shrivastava

78

71

7.9

IT

TCS

Table 1 Database

3.2 DATABASE MODELLING

A database model is a type of data model that defines a logical structure of a database. It also defines the way in which the data can be stored, organized and manipulated. The most popular example of the data modeling is the relational model. A relational model uses table based format.

There are three models of data modeling-

1). Conceptual Data Model

2). Logical Data Model

3). Physical Data Model

3.2.1 Conceptual Data Model

It is a data model which only defines the structure. It is at the lowest complexity level. It is easy to be made and also easy to understand. But it does not give much information. It is only the structure of the database. It only has the name of the entities and the relationship between the two entities. It do not defines the keys and the attributes of the database.

3.2.2 Logical Data Model

Logical data model defines the details of the data. It tells us how to implement the conceptual model that we have already discussed. There we have the entities and their relationships, but now we want to know that how to implement those entities and how to establish the relations between them? So the conceptual model let us understand that how the entities will be implemented without worrying. Its complexity level is higher than the conceptual model. Here along with the entities and their relationships, the attributes and the keys are also defined.

3.2.3 Physical Data Model

Now physical data model is the most complex data model among the three. It tells us how to implement the logical model into the database of our choice. This actually means that here we have more details of our data. In the case of physical model, the details up to the column names, their data types table names; all this information is also present along the keys information.

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3.2.4 DATA MODELS

A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated. The most popular example of a database model is the relational model, which uses a table – based format.

There are mainly three types of logical data models-

1). Hierarchical model

2). Network model

3). Relational model

3.2.4.1 HIERARCHICAL MODEL

In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree like structure, implying a single parent for each record. A sort field is there, which keeps the records of the siblings in a particular manner. This hierarchy is used as the physical order of records in storage. Record access is done by navigating downward through the data structure using sequential accessing. Because of this the hierarchical structure is inefficient for certain database operations when full path is also not included for each record.

3.2.4.2 NETWORK MODEL

The network model expands upon the hierarchical structure, allowing many – to – many relationships in a tree like structure that allows multiple parents. It was most popular before being replaced by relational model. The network model organizes data using two fundamental concepts, called records and sets. Record contains fields. Sts define one – to – many relationships between records: one owner, many members.

3.3 RELATIONAL MODEL

A relational model, also known as RM, is a approach to manage the data in a database management system using a structure. In the relational model of a database, all the data is arranged in a tabular format. The data is represented in tuples and column form, where they are divided in groups according to their relations. The basic purpose of RM is to provide a method, to the users, about the exact data and the queries. It helps the user to directly get the information they want from the huge data present in the database by the means of queries. In relational model, the tables are related to each other through the keys. Most of the relational databases uses the SQL data definition language, data manipulation language and the data query language.

3.4 DISTRIBUTED DBMS

Distributed database management system is the system where the database is not present at only one location. Here, as the name itself explains, the database is distributed. Now distributed means what? Distributed means the database is distributed among the different remote locations. If a database if remotely located, then it is actually good with respect to security, system performance, system load balancing, etc.

Remotely located can be anything like either in different areas of a city or in two different cities of a country or in two different countries. It is also not compulsory that the database is divided into two parts and stored in two different locations; it could b many parts and could be stored at many locations. It is a good concept because; it enhances the security of our data. If someone tries to hack our database, he/she can hack only some amount of data, if all the data is present only at one place then he/she could have hacked all the data. Secondly, it is also good with respect to the load balancing of the system, as there some data present, so the system can handle those data request easily and can balance the load on it by the internet. This in reply also increases the speed of the responses done and increases the systems performance.

One more important thing about the distributed systems is, when we retrieve our data from the database, we will not feel any changes, we will not be aware of the fact that from which location we our getting our data, in fact, we are even not able to get that whether the database is distributed or not.

3.5 DATA WAREHOUSE

A data warehouse is a tool for business executives to organize, understand, and use their data to make strategic decisions. Actually, in simpler words, we can say that a data warehouse is a huge collection of data. It can have historic data, normal day to day data, etc. Most of the companies or organizations have their data warehouses, these data warehouse help them to make further strategies for the business. As we all know that we can best learn from the past, either from our own mistakes or from someone else’s. So this is what this historic data do for us. It helps us take new decisions on the basis of past for the future of the organization. Data warehouse is not like databases. Warehouse is actually the combination of many databases. Data warehouses do not up-to-date on a daily basis. Organizations save the databases in the data warehouse either quartly or Half yearly or annually. The proper definition of a data warehouse is-

“A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile collection of data in support of management’s decision making process.”

Now the four keywords we get from this definition are- subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant and nonvolatile.

3.5.1 Subject-oriented

Here subject oriented means, that a data warehouse focuses on the particular subjects and not on the day-to-day processing of an organization. Data warehouse organizes the data around the major subjects’ like- customer, products, sales etc., and this concise view of the data helps the organizations to make strategic decisions.

3.5.2 Integrated

A data warehouse is made up of such a huge amount of data and all this data has been integrated from various heterogeneous sources. So, this integration of data from various sources is the basis of this integrated keyword.

3.5.3 Time-variant

The data is stored with the historical perspective. This data could be 5-10years old or even may be older than that. Data warehouses are not updated on a daily basis.

3.5.4 Nonvolatile

Data warehouse is always physically separated from the operational database. So it is not used for the regular quires or transactions. Due to this fact, it do not requires transaction management, recovery, concurrency control mechanisms.

3.6 DATA MINING

Data mining means extracting of or mining of knowledge from the huge amount of data. Actually its name should be given as knowledge mining, because we are mining the knowledge and not the data. So as we have discussed this many time till now that we used to have huge amount of data, so getting the useful information from that is a difficult task. So extracting that knowledge from the data using various techniques and tools is called as Data Mining.

Well basically, the process of transforming the data into the knowledge has many steps and the data mining is one of the. The actual process of getting information from the data is known as KDD i.e; Knowledge Discovery in Databases. KDD has 7 steps as follows-

1). Data Cleaning

2). Data Integration

3). Data Selection

4). Data Transformation

5). Data Mining

6). Pattern Evaluation

7). Knowledge Presentation

Now the Step 1 and 2 i.e; Data Cleaning and Data Integration are combined together as Cleaning and Integration.

Also the step 3 and 4 i.e; Data Selection and Data Transformation are combined together as Selection and Transformation.

Data Cleaning - This is done to remove noise and inconsistent data.

Data Integration - This is used to combine the multiple data sources.

Data Selection - This is done to get the relevant data, according to the analysis task.

Data Transformation - This is done to transform the data in appropriate forms for mining using various operations.

Data Mining - This is the most essential process to be done. It applies intelligent methods on the data to extract the data patterns.

Pattern Evaluation - This is done to find out the truly interesting patterns which are representing knowledge.

Knowledge Presentation - This is done to apply visualization techniques to present the mined knowledge.

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Fig. 11 KDD Process

2.7 ARCHITECTURE OF DBMS
2.7.1 PHYSICAL LEVEL

The physical schema describes details of how data is stored: files, indices, etc. on the random access disk system. It also typically describes the record layout of files and types of files. Early applications worked at this level explicitly dealt with details. E.g. minimizing physical distances between related data and organizing the data structures within the file. Problem: routines are hardcoded to deal with physical representation, changes to data structures are difficult to make, application code becomes complex since it must deal with details, rapid implementation of new features very difficult.

2.7.2 CONCEPTUAL LEVEL

Also referred to as the Logical level. Hides details of the physical level. In the relational model, the conceptual schema presents data as a set of tables. The DBMS maps data access between the conceptual to physical schemas automatically. Physical schema can be changed without changing application. DBMS must change mapping from conceptual to physical. Referred to as physical data independence.

2.7.3 EXTERNAL LEVEL

In the relational model, the external schema also presents data as a set of relations. An external schema specifies a view of the data in terms of the conceptual level. It is tailored to the needs of a particular category of users. Portions of stored data should not be seen by some users and beings to implement a level of security and simplifies the view for these users. Applications are written in terms of an external schema. The external view is computed when accessed. It is not stored. Different external schemas can be provided to different categories of users. Translation from external level to conceptual level is done automatically by DBMS at run time. The conceptual schema can be changed without changing application.

2.7.4 DATA INDEPENDENCE

Logical data independence- immunity of external models to changes in the logical model, occurs at user interface level.

Physical data independence- immunity of logical model to changes in internal model, occurs at logical interface level.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1 Compare and contrast computers on the basis of processing speed and storage capacity.

(07 marks) (DEC 2012)

Q.2 Explain the various types of operating systems briefly. (07 marks) (DEC 2012)

Q.3 What are different types of database? Discuss main activities of each.

(07 marks) (DEC 2012)

Q.4 Explain different data models briefly. (07 marks) (DEC 2012)

Q.5 Explain the architecture of DBMS. (07 marks) (DEC 2012, DEC 2010, JUNE 2014, DEC 2013)

Q.6 What is the purpose of memory in a computer. (07 marks) (JUNE 2011, JUNE 2015)

Q.7 What is operating system? Explain the functions of operating systems.

(07 marks) (JUNE 2011, JUNE 2014, JUNE 2013)

Q.8 Discuss the generation of computers. (07 marks) (JUNE 2011)

Q.9 Explain DBMS. Compare it with file oriented approach.

(07 marks) (JUNE 2011, DEC 2013, JUNE 2013) (02 marks)(JUNE 2014)

Q.10 What are data models? (07 marks) (JUNE 2011)

Q.11 Why do computers have internal memory as a part of CPU? (07 marks) (DEC 2010)

Q.12 What is an operating system? Explain the services provided by an operating system.

(07 marks) (DEC 2010)

Q.13 What is the need of evaluation of DBMS? (07 marks) (DEC 2010)

Q.14 What is a data model? Explain any two type of data model with an example of each.

(07 marks) (DEC 2010)

Q.15 Explain how CPU communicates with input/output devices. (07 marks) (JUNE 2012)

Q.16 Explain the following types of operating systems (07 marks) (JUNE 2012)

(i) Time Sharing (ii) Multiprogramming

Q.17 What is the importance of input and output devices? Explain any two input output devices. (07 marks) (JUNE 2015)

Q.18 Define Data, Information, Knowledge and Database. What are the different kinds of data models? Give two advantages of each model? (14 marks) (JUNE 2015)

Q.19 Define operating systems? Describe the essential differences between the following types of operating systems-

(a) Batch (b) Interactive (c) Time – sharing (d) Real – Time (07 marks) (DEC 2013)

Q.20 Distinguish between:

i) Input unit and output unit ii) CPU and ALU iii) Data and information. (07 marks) (JUNE 2013)

Q.21 What is data independence? (07 marks) (JUNE 2011, DEC 2013, JUNE 2013)

Q.22 What is data independence? Differentiate between logical and physical data independencies. (07 marks) (JUNE 2012)

Q.23 Describe network data model. What are records and sets in network data model.

(07 marks) (JUNE 2012, JUNE 2013)

Q.24 What is data independence? Explain different types of data independence

(07 marks) (JUNE 2012)

Q.25 What is database schema? How many internal, conceptual and external schema can be defined for the database? (07 marks) (JUNE 2012)

UNIT - 2

1. IT APPLICATION IN COMMUNICATION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

IT has a very important role in communication. Communication has a huge number of applications regarding IT. Many services like cellular telephone services are not possible without IT. Just think for a while that we do not have IT in communications, than we will not have any mobile phone services, as these services are provided to us by the IT only. It is not the only IT application under communication, there are many more applications of IT in communication, for example- network telephone services, cellular telephone services, radio broadcasting, TV broadcasting, audio-visual conferencing, video-on demand, etc.

1.2 NETWORK TELEPHONE SERVICES

Network telephone services are the services which help that uses network to use a telephone service. Now if we want to communicate through telephone to someone, we need network, without network it is not possible to communicate through telephone. Now, the question comes to our mind is what exactly this network is? So, The network is something which is not individual, it is a group. This group contains several nodes, now here the node means the individuals. So a group of multiple individuals is a network. This network helps our call to get to that individual node to which we actually want to connect.

1.3 CELLULAR TELEPHONE SERVICES

Cellular telephone services are also known as mobile telephone services. Cellular or Mobile services means the services like- using telephone anywhere, messaging, etc. The anywhere use of telephone, that we more commonly say as mobile phone is possible only because of the IT. This service is known as cellular service because there are cells in the network, which are divided all over, which let us use the mobile phone everywhere.

Whenever we call or message, the link is established through these cells. Our call reaches the cell, and to the other cell, this other cell is the cell which is nearer to the person receiving the call. So that is how the IT is applied in this field, and become a very important application.

Now the case comes, where we are not able to connect to the person we want to call, or sometimes the things happen like suddenly our call drops. All these things happen when these cells are busy. These cells have their own limits, if the traffic increases on one cell, it forwards our call to another cell, and even if that is also busy, then the cases like no connection or call drop happens.

These cells are divided under the stations; the mobile user is called as mobile station. The station near to the local areas is called as Base station.

1.4 RADIO AND TV BROADCASTING

Radio and TV Broadcasting means to broadcast the radio signals and the TV signals. Broadcasting means to transmit a message to more than one node. Sending a message to multiple nodes is known as broadcasting. Primarily radio and television broadcasting is a way by which information or we should say entertainment is delivered to the public. Radio is the electromagnetic audio signals and TV is audio-visual signals. Both these signals are accessible to a wide population.

Broadcasting is a very powerful technology. It is being used since the day it was realized that this is something which is actually effective in this field. It has a capacity to reach large number of people. From history till today, the long distance communication has completely dependent on transportation. It is by a bus, train, plain, or pigeon, all of them are not the right or we should say the perfect way to do communication. Let us take an example to understand the importance of broadcasting- Let you have a message, and you have to let all of your relatives to know about that, and all of them are definitely not living in the same location or city or state or even country. Now, what will u do? If you send a mail, i.e; a post mail, a mail which we send by post, and not an e-mail, to all of your relatives, may be some mails reach and some don’t. May be someone get your mail on time and may be somewhere it will reach days later. So here is the importance of broadcast comes, where you can send messages, mails etc options are there, available to you to broadcast your message.

1.4.1 RADIO BROADCASTING

Radio broadcasting is nothing more than what we listen on our phones FM Radio. It is a way by which the audio can be broadcasted to many people at the same time. As you that whether you listing your FM radio at home or and your friend at his home, you both are getting the same audio. This what it means by broadcasting. It can be broadcasted to a huge number of people. It is only audio broadcasting. It is earlier than the TV broadcasting. As here only audio is broadcasted, it has been a great platform for information, music, entertainment, etc. Radio broadcasting was doing very well, and is still doing a great job, but the only problem with is technology is its only audio based. Although still people love to listen it. They will list cricket match’s commentary on it, but if it was also possible to view it, then it would definitely be a wonderful option. Just because of this reason, we switched towards the audio-visual broadcasting. Although even in the presence of audio-visual, the only audio broadcasting is still a wonderful way to enjoy music and to be connected to the happenings around your city.

1.4.2 TELEVISION BROADCASTING

Television broadcasting is the broadcasting of the audio, as in the case of radio broadcasting plus the visual broadcasting. Here the audio as well as the visuals both are combined together and then the broadcasting is done. TV broadcasting is hugely used with the broadcasting of entertainment. All the daily soaps that you watch are the result of this TV broadcasting. Secondly it is used for information or news. Then, all the sports we enjoy on TV are also thanks to TV broadcasting. Ever imagine a cricket match has only audio and no visuals? Or only visuals and no audio? In these cases, the excitement would not be the same as it is with the combination of both. So, this is the power of TV broadcasting. Television is a very important as well as very common means of information, entertainment and enjoyment. These days people cannot think there life without TV. This was a great technology to be in touch with the whole world. This one is far far better than the radio technology.

1.5 AUDIO-VISUAL CONFERENCING

Audio visual conferencing is also known as video conferencing. Video means the combination of audio and visuals. Whenever a video conference is conducted, it is called as video conferencing. It is a video conferencing, which is done by the use of some telecommunication technologies, which allow two or more geographical locations to communicate to each other by a two way audio- video transmission. It is also known as visual collaboration or video collaboration. It is different from the normal videophone calls, as it basically serves a conference or we can say multiple locations, and not for individuals. When more than two parties are conferencing, then it is called as group conferencing.

This is a technique, which uses both audio and visual telecommunication between people, to bring them together form different sites. It could be as a simple point-to-point conversation i,e; between only two parties, like- a private office meeting or a multipoint conversation i,e; when several parties are involved. This is also a good way to present documents as well as to display information on whiteboards. Initially, it was used on a primary basis within internal corporate networks. Then over last 15-20years, it has been grown as a needed utility in the corporate world specially.

The core technology used in a videoconferencing system is the compression of audio and video and that to also in real time. The hardware that we uses to perform this compression is known as codec, i,e; coder/decoder. The components required for videoconferencing systems are-

Video input- Video camera or webcam.

Video output- Computer monitor, television or projector.

Audio input- microphones, CD/DVD player, cassette player, etc.

Audio output- loudspeakers.

Data transfer- analog or digital telephone network, LAN or Internet.

Computer- a data processing unit.

1.5.1 TYPES OF VIDEOCONFERENCING SYSTEMS

Basically there are two types of conferencing systems as given below-

1.5.1.1 DEDICATED SYSTEMS

Dedicated systems are those systems, which are particularly designed for the videoconferencing purpose. They have all the required components packed up into a single system. They are the complete package for the videoconferencing. These types of systems have a great range of cameras, microphones, provides fast processing of the data, proper hardware and software required as codec, etc. The only disadvantage of this system is that it is costly. Now as we have seen it is providing us the best tools of all kinds to fulfill our purpose of videoconferencing, it is kind of obvious that we will not get it that easily.

1.5.1.2 DESKTOP SYSTEMS

Desktop systems are the normal systems, like your PC or laptop. It is completely opposite to the dedicated systems, except the fact that it can also be used for videoconferencing. Yes, it does not have anything dedicated, it does not have all the perfect components, it do not have the completely correct software or hardware. But still it can be used for videoconferencing. It is to make a desktop system into a videoconferencing system. The normal range of cameras, and some microphones are required for the hardware and some software that can help you in videoconferencing plus a internet connection, all this is enough. But for sure, it will not produce as good results as we can get from a dedicated system. But yes, a at least we have the results.

1.6 VIDEO-ON-DEMAND

Video-on-demand (VOD) is a system that allows us or users to watch any video or to listen any audio, at anytime and not have to wait for the time when it will be broadcasted. This means, watching a video or listing a audio even when it is not been broadcasting from anywhere. To understand it well let us take the example of YOUTUBE. You all know about youtube, and you all must have used it also. So what happens there? We open the website, search the video we want to watch and play it. That’s it. Right? So have you ever thought from where this video is broadcasting? Whenever you open a video always it is broadcasting. NO, it is not broadcasting. We have already discussed about the concept of broadcasting, now the fact behind the working of youtube is VOD and not broadcasting. Whenever you open a video, it is not being broadcasted to you from anywhere, actually it is a saved video, when you search for it and play it is being playing from the database, and is not being broadcasted.

So, this concept of making videos and audios available to everyone, when they are not being broadcasted from anywhere is called Video on demand. Before this concept, what usually happens was we were able to see a video or listen an audio only on the time when it is broadcasted. If we want to listen it again it was not possible, or if we have missed it that time, they we have missed forever. So, VOD is a very powerful system, which helped us from overcoming all this issues. For televisions, the VOD system is being used with the help of set-top box. We can save the shows over there, and can watch them later. For computers, we have two options, either to download it from internet or to watch it online on internet.

2. INTERNET TECHNOLOGY

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Internet technologies refer to the technologies which are being used in the internet. We have always heard of the internet being a technology itself. But the fact is that, the internet is the combination of many technologies. Internet is not a small term, it is very huge inside it. If we will start to learn about it, it is kind of nearly impossible to remember everything, and also not easy to understand everything. It is vast, very vast. The new technologies are being evolved on a daily basis. We already have a hell lot of technologies for various areas of internet and is still getting the new ones, nearly daily.

These technologies of the internet cover various areas under it. For example- For the presentation of the data that we see on internet, for sending data from one device to another, for managing the traffic of data being send, for managing the lost data, for managing the security if the data, for traversing the internet, for managing the various platforms, etc. It is very difficult to find the end of this list.

All the technologies used under all these areas plus for the rest of the areas are packaged together and is known as internet technologies.

2.2 WORKING OF INTERNET

The internet is known as a huge or large network, which is combined of various networks. It is like a global network. It has heterogeneous types of networks under it, like- private, public, govt., academics, etc. It connects computers of approximately millions in counting. All these computer under internet are called as hosts. We can find any topic, any book, any information from internet. We can shop from there, can order food from there, can buy books from there, can read newspaper on it, can sell our old mobile phone, can get a house for rent from there, can listen our favorite tracks from there, can chat with a friend in abroad, can learn how mom makes our favorite dish, it is actually like- we can do anything and can get anything from internet. This is how the internet is making our life easy.

As far as the working of the internet concerns, neither it is controlled by any particular organization, nor does the government handle it. It is just the interconnection of various private system, various organizations, various government agencies, universities etc. It is just a collection of computers linked together to each other. Any private system or computer can be connected to the internet by a phone-line modem or DSL or by a cable modem. These modems communicate to the server of the ISP. ISP is a company that provides the internet connections to the users. There can be many ISP companies that provide this feature of internet connection in every country around the globe.

Now for the case of an organization, university, business etc can connect their computer system to the internet by the use of LAN, with a network interface card. Now this LAN is connected to the ISP with a high speed phone-line. High speed phone line is required here as we are not connecting only one system, we are connecting a LAN, and LAN itself is a small network of multiple systems. So here we are connecting all the computers under the LAN to the internet.

Now there are multiple ISP’s. One for the local region, then for the city region, then our country, etc. as shown in the figure below.

img

Fig.1 Working of Internet

2.3 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK PROTOCOL AND TOPOLOGIES
2.3.1 NETWORK PROTOCOL

A network protocol defined rules and regulations for communication between the systems or devices in the network. Network protocols have the mechanisms for the network related devices to identify and make connections with each other. It also have the rule for the formatting that tells that how to package the data into messages and how to send and receive them. There are also protocols available that supports message acknowledgement and data compression. There are hundreds of protocols have been designed and developed for particular purposes and environments. The internet protocols have protocol families and these protocol families contain a set of related protocols. Other than the Internet Protocol (IP) itself, some other higher level protocols like- TCP, UDP, HTTP and FTP are all integrated with IP to provide some additional capabilities. Similarly, for lower level internet protocols like- ARP and ICMP also co-exist with IP. So this family of protocols is known as IP family. In the same way we have routing protocols, which help in routing the data packet. Some common routing protocols are- BGP, OSPF, EIGRP, etc.

2.3.2 NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

Network topology is the technique of systematic arrangement and description of nodes in a network. The topology also includes the connecting lines. It describes where the nodes are placed with respect to each other, and also describes how the nodes are connected to each other. It defines the geometry of the network. It defines what geometry the network makes with its nodes inside it. Here geometry means the arrangement of nodes and the geometry formed by connecting them with the help of connecting lines. Now, this geometry of nodes can be divided into two types, one is logical topology and the other is physical topology.

There are 6 types of topologies as mentioned below.

RING TOPOLOGY

In ring topology, the nodes are attached to each other in a geometry forming a ring. This means all the nodes are connected to each other and thus forms a looping structure. The name of the topology is ring so it is not compulsory that it will form a circular ring, it can be a rectangular ring also. Just ring means forming a loop. Here a node is connected on both sides to the other nodes. One node is connected to its left to a node and to its right to one more node. Each node is connected to two nodes only. It cannot be connected to more than two nodes and also cannot be connected to less than two nodes. It will be exactly two nodes. Now when a node wants to communicate to some other node, the message from the sender node will be received to the receiver node through all the nodes that come in between them. Let us understand it with the help of an example.

Now, by following the figure alongside, we can see that there are 6 nodes here, which are arranged in the ring structure. Now let the node1 has to send some data to the node3. Now, as there is no direct link in between the nodes 1 and 3,so the node1 can send the data to the node3 either by through the node2 or through the nodes 6,5, and 4. The short route is obviously through the node2. So the data from the node1 will be send to the node2, and then from there, it will be send to the node3.

Now there comes the disadvantage part, let if the node2 is down, now the node1 has no other option but to send the data to the node3 through the node6-node5-node4. So, the disadvantage comes here is that, if a node is down or we can say in common language that if a node is not in a working state, then sending message or data from one node to another node becomes difficuilt. This topology uses less cabling nad is good for broadcasting.

TREE TOPOLOGY

In tree topology, the nodes of a network form a tree like structure. Here tree like structure means that, the parent node is connected to its child nodes, and further the child nodes are connected to its child nodes and so on. This hierarchy can be up to several levels. Here, the tree can either be like a normal tree or can be upside down. In tree topology, all the nodes are connected to two nodes and then these two nodes each connect to two more nodes and in this way, the tree forms. Here also, a node cannot have more than two nodes to itself, but it can have less than two nodes, it can either be one or zero. Here the nodes have the possibility of having single child node or not having any child nodes.

The disadvantage of this topology is same as that in the ring topology. If one has to communicate to another node, it has to go through the nodes in between them. And if a node fails, it will block the communication. For example- referring to the figure alongside, if the node1 wants to communicate to node5 and the node2 is not working, and then the communication stops. Node1 do not have any other path to communicate to node5. In fact, due to the failure of node2, the communication between node1 and node4 is also not possible. This structure is very effective when a network has a huge number of nodes.

LINE TOPOLOGY

In line topology, all the nodes of the network are connected in a single line. It is like people standing in a queue. All the nodes make a queue like straight line, and then are connected to the nodes on both the sides. The first and the last nodes have one open side, which is connected to the other networks or to the rest of the internet. In this case, the first and the last nodes are connected to only one node within the network, and all other nodes are connected to two nodes, on both sides. Here also, the number of connections per nodes is fixed. Except the corner nodes, all the in between nodes can have only two connection, not more than that, and not less than that. The corner nodes will have only one connection.

The disadvantage of this kind of topology is if a node fails, and let it to be a node that is not on the corner, then the communication suffers. Let us take an example- according to the figure, given alongside, now let if the node3 is down in this line arrangement, then, on one side, only nodes 1 and 2 can communicate to each other, but they cannot communicate to 3, 4 5 and 6 nodes. On the other side, the nodes 4, 5 and 6 can communicate to each other, but they cannot communicate to node1 and node2. So, if a node fails, it will stop the communication between many nodes. Line topology requires less cabling work and is very good for the small network cases.

MESH TOPOLOGY

Mesh topology has a structure, where all the nodes are connected to all other nodes. Here each node of the network is connected to each other node of that network. This means that each node has a dedicated path to the other node to communicate. It also has a major advantage that if a node fails; it is not going to effect the communication in the rest of the network. Although it is not easy to establish this type of topology because huge cabling is required. It is only possible if the number of nodes is less, if there is more number of nodes, than it becomes nearly impossible to attach all the nodes to all other nodes of a network. This topology is only good for the cases where the number of nodes in a network is limited.

STAR TOPOLOGY

In star topology, the nodes of the network form a structure that looks like a star. In this case, all the nodes of the network are connected to the central node only. No node is connected to any other node. So except the center node, all other nodes have one and only one connection link. They cannot have more than one link as well as cannot have less than one link. On the other side, the central node has as much connection as the number of nodes in the network, as it is connected to all the nodes of the network. The central node is a hub. A hub is something that is responsible for delivering your message to the right node. It forwards the message to the node, which it is recipient to. So all the nodes send their messages or data to the central node or the hub, and then this hub forwards this data to the node it has to be sent.

The major disadvantage of this system is in the case if the hub node is down. If the central node is not working then no other node is able to communicate to any other node, as all the messages from all the nodes travel through the central node. If in the case of the central node failure, the whole communication stops and the network will be fully paralyzed.

BUS TOPOLOGY

Bus topology is the structure of the arrangement of the nodes in a network where all the nodes are arranged along a single line. The nodes are attached to a single link to each other on the either side of the link. This topology is only for the small networks, as large networks with huge number of nodes within it cannot maintain this kind of topology. Although there is no limit of connecting the number of nodes on either side of the bus, but still we cannot have large number of nodes connected in this manner. The advantage of this topology is that, even if some node is not working, then also the rest of the nodes are able to communicate to each other. The failure of one node is not going to affect the rest of the nodes or to the network. But if there is some problem with the link occurs, then no node is able to communicate, as all the nodes are connected to the same bus.

2.4 TYPES OF NETWORKS

The networks can be of various types, according the number of nodes they have, the area they cover, the environment for which they have been covering, etc. As we cannot have same network for all the cases. Let us take an example- let we have an organization, and approximately 500000 people are working there. Now we need an internet network for there, than we need a network, which can have huge number of nodes within it, so that it can cover all the systems with ease and still have space so that more systems can be added to it according to the requirement of the organization. Now if we want a internet network for our home, there at most we have to connect one or two systems only, than such a huge network will not be good for us. So here we need a small network. Thus, according to the requirements, we can divide the networks into many categories.

According to the size required-

For small size we have LAN- Local Area Network

For medium size we have MAN- Metropolitan Area Network

For large size we have WAN- Wide Area Network

According to the privacy required-

For offices and organizations- Private Networks

For malls and common areas- Public Networks

For very private organizations- Virtual Private Networks

Here, in our syllabus, we are going to cover LAN and WAN networks.

2.5 LAN

LAN stands for Local Area Network. It is a privately owned network. It can be used for a smaller area like an office, or a building or inside a campus. LAN links the devices in such a simple manner that it feels like connecting two PC’s and a printer, this type of small connection is LAN. And this connection can be extended up to inside a certain campus or in a company. The range for a LAN connection is up to a few kilometers only. The LAN networks are designed especially for the personal computers and workstations. It allows the sharing of resources between them. Here the word resources means it could be either hardware like printer or software like any application or it could also be data. And as we know that data is the most common type of resource that is to be shared between the PC’s or workstations. In case when the LAN has to be applied inside a company, then one computer system has been given large capacity disk space, so that it can act like a server, and the rest of the systems are the clients to that server. So the sharing of hardware or software is done through this central server. The applications are installed into this central server and then the clients are allowed to use them by requesting the server. Similarly, the hardware is also attached to this central server, and clients can use them through the server.

2.6 WAN

WAN stands for Wide Area Network. WAN network is used for large area, here large area means the whole world. WAN is for long distance transmission of data, voice, images and video information over large geographical area. A WAN can have a country, continent, or even the whole world. WANs can utilize public, leased or private communication devices. It can cover an unlimited miles. WAN can also be wholly owned by a company. It is not that someone is providing us the free internet everywhere.

2.7 WEB BROWSER

A web browser is an application, which is used to connect the user to the internet. As we all know till now about the internet, so we need something to access it. This web browser is that access to the internet. We can install these web browsers into our computer systems, and then just have to double click them, as we do with all other applications, and then it starts working. Now the question comes is how do it work? So the answer to this question is as follows- when we open the web browser, there at the top we have an URL bar, there we have to enter the URL address of the page we want to open. Then through the help of protocols, the web browser sends this request of us to the web server. Then the web server responses back to the web browser with that page, and then the web browser opens up that page as the result of our query. So the main access to the internet is web browser. It is a client side or user side application to access the internet. There are many web browsers, from many organizations, like- Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Netscape Navigator etc.

3. INTERNET SERVICES

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Internet services, as the name defines itself, these are the services, that internet provides to us. All the services that we get by internet are collectively and commonly called as internet services. Here the term service belongs to the work that we can do or to the facilities that internet provides to its users. Some examples of service provided by the internet are- emails, free messaging, chatting, video call, video conferencing, online booking of tickets, online shopping, payments, etc.

Now if internet has so much to do, then obviously it all cannot work on only one protocol. As we can see that all the services we discussed are completely different form each other, so we need different protocols for them. For example, chatting through social media requires security only up to a certain level, as we all want that no one other can read our messages. So we all have a user id and a password for protection. But in case of online payment of anything like- your electricity bill, or phone bill, or transferring amount to someone’s bank account, these things requires high security, because if someone gets our account details and passwords used by us, he can hack your account and can have all that money to himself, so in case the such transactions are taking place then high level of security is required.

3.2 E-MAIL

E-mail stands for electronic mail. The word mail is used here inference to the word mail from the post office mail. Now the word electronic is used here because the mail is being sent through electronic medium. It is like we are sending a post through the electronic system. While in the staring of this concept of e-mails, the mails that can be sent to each other cannot have long messages, it should have to be very short, and was used then for text only. Now the days, the emails are very much more complex. Now we it is not limited to the type of data we are sending, it could be text, or images, or videos, or audios, or files, or documents, etc. But it still has a limit for the length or we can say limit for the size of the mail we are sending. Including all the data the size of an email should not exceed 25MB. Although it is still very much large than in the beginning. Now we also have a facility provided to us that commonly known as CC. CC is a field to be filled (not compulsory) when we sent an email. In this CC field, we can add more than one recipient. So, one email can be sent to multiple people at the same time. An email is not a protocol; it has many protocols working under it. An sending of the email from one system and being received at the other end is not as simple as it looks. In this whole process, there are many protocols working together. Some of these protocols are- SMTP, POP, IMAP and MIME.

3.3 TELNET

Telnet stands for Terminal NETwork. TELNET is a client server application program. It establishes the connection to the remote systems. It works in a way that while being connected to a remote location, the local terminal appears to be a terminal at remote location. Now the TELNET is based on time sharing environment. A time sharing environment means, where the multiple users are access the system, and are sharing the time spans in between them. In the concept of time sharing, each user feels like he is the only one how is using the system.

Now, since it works in the time sharing environment, it must need some kind of authentication, so that no other can enter in your space and is not allowed to see or access your data. So here, for the authentication, the login concept is being used. In login concept, the user is provided with an user id, which is unique for every user, and a password is also provided to them, through which they can login to the system. In some cases, the user id and the password, both are provided by the system, or in some cases, the user are asked to decide their password of their choice. So now, there are two types of login in TELNET-

1). Local Login- In local login, the user logs into the local system, where he is working.

2). Remote Login- In remote login, the user logs in to the remote systems. It requires the establishment of the connection in between the local system and the remote system. Here the user enters his credentials and his credentials are sent to the remote location through the connection established. Then the remote user authenticates the user id and password of the user. If it is correct, then the user is allowed to use the applications on the remote system, and if the information is not correct, then the remote system rejects the user request.

3.4 FTP

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is very important protocol in internet. As we all know that there are hells lots of files that we need to transfer to other users through the internet, these days it is like the most important thing of our daily life. So for this purpose, the protocol that we use is known as FTP. FTP, as its name defines, transfers the file from the one side to the other, or we can say from the sender to the receiver. Well, the actual concept of FTP is not to transfer file from one side of the internet to the other, but it copies the file from the sender side to the receiver side. Now the FTP works on two different connections. It uses one connection for the control and another connection for the data. It do not uses control and data connection commonly. It uses two different ports for two connections to be established.

3.5 WWW

WWW stands for World Wide Web. It is an information space. It is an open environment, where the documents and other resources are specified by the URLs. All these resources can be used by the help of internet. The WWW is simply and commonly known as Web. The www is the primary tool that everyone uses to interact to the internet. Web pages are text documents, which are formatted by HTML and can have images, audios, videos, etc. When more than one page have the common theme or we can say have the same domain name, or sometimes if have both, then it is called as website. To view a web page, we can either type the URL on the web browser or can follow the hyperlinks to that page. Using a browser for viewing the web pages or to move from one web page to another by hyperlinks is known as browsing or web surfing or net surfing or navigating the web.

3.6 HTML

HTML is Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a standard markup language that is used in creating the web pages. The HTML is used along with either CSS or with JavaScript. This is a markup language that other than creating the web pages can also create user interfaces for mobiles and web applications. Our web browsers are able to understand the HTML files, and then they changes those files to readable, visible or audible web pages for us. HTML is not an programming language, it uses the tags to create a page, so it is a markup language. It defines the semantic structure of a website. HTML elements form the building blocks of HTML pages. HTML can embed images and other multimedia to the web pages. It can also be used to create interactive forms. HTML elements are defined in tags. These tags are represented by making angle brackets. The element is written in between the two angle brackets such as- <p> …… </p>. Here each element has a staring tag and then a closing tag. The starting tag is written by writing the element between the angle brackets, and the closing tag is written by adding a slash before the element name.

3.7 URL

URL is Uniform Resource Locator. The internet uses locators to specify the information on the internet. URL is one of these locators that we use most commonly. URL works to locate any kind of information on this huge internet. URL has 4 parts inside it. It uses following 4 things to locate the exact information on the internet. As it is obviously very much difficult to find out the proper information from the large amount of data, present on the internet. So the 4 parts or things required by the URL are-

Fig. 13 URL Parts

3.7.1 Protocol

Firstly, the protocol is required. Now the question comes that why the protocol is needed and how is it going to help URL in locating the information? So the answer is that, it helps in retrieving the documents from the internet. A protocol is a client server application program. It helps in retrieving the documents that are requested by the user or client. Some of these protocols are HTTP, FTP, TELNET, etc. The most commonly used one is HTTP.

3.7.2 Host

The host defines the domain name of the computer system, on which the information is stored or located. The web pages belong to a website, and all these web pages are stored on a computer system. Now to indentify these systems, they have been given different domain names, which usually start with www. Although it is not required to start the domain name with www, the computer system can have any domain name.

3.7.3 Port

An URL can have optionally defined a port number of the server. If the URL contains the port number, then this port number is inserted between the host and the path, and it is being separated from the host by a colon.

3.7.3 Path

A path is the pathname of the file, which tells us that where the file or the information is located. In the path itself, it can have slashes, that separate the directories from the subdirectories and files, or we can say it can separate the main folders from the sub folders. It defines the complete path to the file.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1 Explain LAN, MAN and WAN. (07 marks) (JUNE 2011)

Q.2 Explain the architecture of WWW briefly. (07 marks) (DEC 2012, DEC 2010)

Q.3 Write a note on WWW. (03 marks) (JUNE 2011, JUNE 2013)

Q.4 Explain the different topologies and mention the key advantages and disadvantages of star topology. (07 marks) (JUNE 2015)

Q.5 What is protocol? How it differs from program? (02 marks) (JUNE 2014)

UNIT - 3

1. IT APPLICATIONS IN MULTIMEDIA

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In the last chapter, we have discussed the IT applications in communication, and we came to the conclusion that there will be no communication possible without IT. Similarly, now we are going to discuss about the IT applications in multimedia, and in the end of the chapter again we will be at the same conclusion. Multimedia is content that uses the combinations of different types of data forms like- text, images, audio, video, animation, etc. Multimedia is neither a hardware nor a software, it is actually a field, which belongs to computer controlled mixture of text, still and moving images (video), graphics, animations, drawings, audio etc, where all the information from these media, can be presented, saved, transferred, and processed in digital format. Multimedia refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. This contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, or interactivity content forms. Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed, or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.

The IT has covered the whole multimedia through its applications. From compressing a video to converting an image to another format, from playing online games to watching online movies, from downloading your favorite song to sending funny images to your friends, these all are the IT application in multimedia. Animation is also an application of IT within multimedia.

1.2 COMPONENTS OF MULTIMEDIA AND CHALLENGES

In this section, we are going to describe the various components of the multimedia. We are also going to discuss about the challenges of multimedia. A Multimedia System is a system capable of processing multimedia data and applications. A Multimedia System is characterized by the processing, storage, generation, manipulation and rendition of Multimedia information.

A computer system with the capabilities to capture, digitize, compress, store, decompress and present information is called multimedia system. The aim of multimedia system is to provide a creative and effective way of producing, storing and communicating information. The application areas of multimedia are marketing, training, education, entertainment, etc.

A Multimedia system has four basic characteristics:

  • Multimedia systems must be computer controlled.
  • Multimedia systems are integrated.
  • The information they handle must be represented digitally.

The interface to the final presentation of media is usually interactive.

1.2.1 COMPONENTS OF MULTIMEDIA

The primary characteristic of a multimedia system is the use of more than one kind of media to deliver content and functionality. Web and desktop computing programs can both involve multimedia components. As well as different media items, a multimedia application will normally involve programming code and enhanced user interaction. Multimedia items generally fall into one of five main categories and use varied techniques for digital formatting.

1.2.1.1 TEXT

It may be an easy content type to forget when considering multimedia systems, but text content is by far the most common media type in computing applications. Most multimedia systems use a combination of text and other media to deliver functionality. Text in multimedia systems can express specific information, or it can act as reinforcement for information contained in other media items. This is a common practice in applications with accessibility requirements. For example, when Web pages include image elements, they can also include a short amount of text for the user's browser to include as an alternative, in case the digital image item is not available.

1.2.1.2 IMAGES

Digital image files appear in many multimedia applications. Digital photographs can display application content or can alternatively form part of a user interface. Interactive elements, such as buttons, often use custom images created by the designers and developers involved in an application. Digital image files use a variety of formats and file extensions. Among the most common are JPEGs and PNGs. Both of these often appear on websites, as the formats allow developers to minimize on file size while maximizing on picture quality. Graphic design software programs such as Photoshop and Paint.NET allow developers to create complex visual effects with digital images.

1.2.1.3 AUDIO

Audio files and streams play a major role in some multimedia systems. Audio files appear as part of application content and also to aid interaction. When they appear within Web applications and sites, audio files sometimes need to be deployed using plug-in media players. Audio formats include MP3, WMA, Wave, MIDI and RealAudio. When developers include audio within a website, they will generally use a compressed format to minimize on download times. Web services can also stream audio, so that users can begin playback before the entire file is downloaded.

1.2.1.4 VIDEO

Digital video appears in many multimedia applications, particularly on the Web. As with audio, websites can stream digital video to increase the speed and availability of playback. Common digital video formats include Flash, MPEG, AVI, WMV and QuickTime. Most digital video requires use of browser plug-ins to play within Web pages, but in many cases the user's browser will already have the required resources installed.

1.2.1.5 ANIMATION

Animated components are common within both Web and desktop multimedia applications. Animations can also include interactive effects, allowing users to engage with the animation action using their mouse and keyboard. The most common tool for creating animations on the Web is Adobe Flash, which also facilitates desktop applications. Using Flash, developers can author FLV files, exporting them as SWF movies for deployment to users. Flash also uses Action Script code to achieve animated and interactive effects.

1.2.2 CHALLENGES OF MULTIMEDIA

Supporting multimedia applications over a computer network renders the application distributed.

Multimedia systems may have to render a variety of media at the same instant -- a distinction from normal applications. There is a temporal relationship between many forms of media (e.g. Video and Audio. There 2 are forms of problems here

  • Sequencing within the media -- playing frames in correct order/time frame in video

· Synchronization -- inter-media scheduling (e.g. Video and Audio). Lip synchronization is clearly important for humans to watch playback of video and audio and even animation and audio. Ever tried watching an out of (lip) sync film for a long time?

The key issues multimedia systems need to deal with here are:

  • How to represent and store temporal information.

· How to strictly maintain the temporal relationships on play back/retrieval

  • What processes are involved in the above?

Data has to represented digitally so many initial source of data needs to be digitize -- translated from analog source to digital representation. The will involve scanning (graphics, still images), sampling (audio/video) although digital cameras now exist for direct scene to digital capture of images and video.

The data is large several Mb easily for audio and video -- therefore storage, transfer (bandwidth) and processing overheads are high. Data compression techniques are very common.

1.3 VIDEO COMPRESSION

Video compression is used for compression of moving picture frames. It also includes audio. The video bandwidth depends upon types of application. For example video telephony and video conferencing may use low video bandwidth. But digital television or digital movies require very high bandwidth. As the bandwidth of video signal increases, the bit rate of encoded signal also increases. All the applications requiring video, use compression of data.

Video compression refers to reducing the quantity of data used to represent video images, and this is almost always coupled with the goal of retaining as much of the original’s quality as possible. Compressed video can effectively reduce the bandwidth required to transmit digital video via terrestrial broadcast, via cable, or via satellite services.

Most video compression is lossy, i.e. it operates on the basis that much of the data present before compression is not necessary for achieving good perceptual quality. For example, DVDs use a video coding standard called MPEG-2 that can compress-2 hours of video data by 15-30 times while still producing a picture quality that is generally considered high quality for standard definition video. Video compression, like data compression, is a tradeoff between disk space, video quality and the cost of hardware required to decompress the video in a reasonable time.

1.3.1 VIDEO COMPRESSION PRINCIPLES

Basically video is made of succession of still frames. These pictures are shown one after another so that the scene appears moving. The video compression basically uses following aspects:

1. There is redundancy in spatial domain. This means many components in the still picture are not sensed by an eye. Hence they can be removed as in JPEG. This redundancy is associated with every still picture frame.

2. Normally 60 frames are presented per second. But successive frames have most of the portion which is same. For example if somebody is talking, then there will be only lip movement in successive frames. Thus considerable compression can be achieved by exploiting the temporal differences that exist between successive picture frames.

The high correlation between the successive frames is used to predict the contents of next frame. The difference between predicted and actual contents of the frame is encoded and sent. This difference gives the movement in the picture. It is called motion compensation.

1.3.2 COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES

There are two types of compression techniques-

1). Lossy Compression- In lossy compression technique, the compression is done but the image has to loss some of its details. Here loss means, that some details or information about the image is lost, which was present in the original image.

2). Lossless Compression- In lossless compression technique, the compression is done without any loss. In this type of compression, the image is compressed without any loss of information in comparison to the original image.

1.4 VIDEO CODING TECHNOLOGY

Video coding is the technique of coding and decoding of videos. The video coding is actually used to decrease the content in the video to data files or bit streams, so that it will be easy to store the video, when we have less space, or it becomes easy to transmit the video. It changes the content of the data to the digital content, so it can be sent or transmitted with ease. So, now we know that why the video coding is required, what is the reason behind the initialization and success of this technology. Now the question comes to the mind is how to do that? So for that, we have many technologies these days. Some of them are- JPEG, MPEG and JBIG etc.

1.5 JPEG

JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group. It is a compression or coding technique. It can be used still images. It can also work well with the videos, but there we have to compress every video frame. But for videos, we have something better that we will discuss in the next topic. So, as we know till now that, JPEG is a compress technique. Now the next important thing about the JPEG is that, it is a lossy compress technique. Here the term lossy compression means, when the compression of the image is done, it losses some of its details. Although JPEG reduces the size of the file 5% of what its size was in the original image, but it cannot do it without the loss of information. It is used for lossy compression of digital images. JPEG compression is used in many image file format. JPEG/Exif is the most common image format for the digital cameras, and JPEG/JFIF is the most common format for storing and transmitting images on World Wide Web. JPEG files usually have file extension of .jpg or .jpeg.

1.6 MPEG

MPEG stands for Moving Picture Experts Group. It is a working group of authorities to set standards for audio and video compression and decompression. The MPEG standards consists of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification. The main MPEG standards include the following-

1) MPEG-1- It is for media multiplexing i.e, audio and video. It has a very low capacity. It also has limited computer processing capability. The resolution is also limited. The storage media for MPEG-1 is CD ROM. CD ROM has high transfer speed and low error rate. The maximum speed is 1.5Mbps.

2) MPEG-2- It is for broadcasting. It is image based. Television broadcasting is done through MPEG-2. For SDTV, the speed is 4Mbps and for HDTV the speed increases to 18-20Mbps.

3) MPEG-4- It is for IP videos. It is completely object based. It is used in internet videos. Speed for SDTV is 2-4Mbps, and for HDTV it is 6-10Mbps.

4) MPEG-7- It is for metadata. It is XML based. It defines object descriptions. The media description includes audio and video.

5) MPEG-21- It is for DRM. DRM stands for Digital Rights Management. It is used for Digital Item Identification (DII), Rights Expression Language (REL) and Digital Item Adaption (DIA). It enables searching; selecting, defining, and managing the rights associated with digital media objects.

1.7 JBIG

JBIG stands for Joint Bi- level Image Experts Group. It is a group of experts nominated by national standards bodies and major companies to work to produce standards for bi-level image coding. The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group created the JBIG and JBIG2 standards. JBIG is lossless image compression standard from the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group. It is widely implemented in fax machines. JBIG is also known as JBIG1.

2. INTRODUCTION TO CLOUD COMPUTING

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet). The name comes from the use of a cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user's data, software and computation. Cloud computing is one of the greatest technologies that we are using these days. It is a provider of dynamic services and resources to the users. Cloud computing has emerged as a new paradigm of large-scale distributed computing. Cloud computing is very popular due to its services. It provides an easy way to keep the data and that is also at a very cheap rate. Cloud computing is a fast growing technology that hosts computing services in a centralized data centers and it provides the access to those services via the Internet. Cloud computing is extremely much a utility, like electricity which is sold on demand, at once scalable to any size, and it is charged as you use. The service provider will manage and provide all aspect of services except the devices which you access it. In future cloud will bring massive changes to the software production. Cloud will change our life by providing new types of services. Cloud computing is a common term for whatever thing that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet.

2.2 TYPES OF CLOUD
2.2.1 PUBLIC CLOUD

Public cloud applications, storage, and other resources are made available to the general public by a service provider. These services are free or offered on a pay-per-use model. Generally, public cloud service providers like Amazon AWS, Microsoft and Google own and operate the infrastructure and offer access only via Internet.

2.2.2 COMMUNITY CLOUD

Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.

2.2.3 HYBRID CLOUD

Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. By utilizing "hybrid cloud" architecture, companies and individuals are able to obtain degrees of fault tolerance combined with locally immediate usability without dependency on internet connectivity. Hybrid Cloud architecture requires both on-premises resources and off-site (remote) server based cloud infrastructure. Hybrid clouds lack the flexibility, security and certainty of in-house applications. Hybrid cloud provides the flexibility of in house applications with the fault tolerance and scalability of cloud based services.

2.2.4 PRIVATE CLOUD

Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Undertaking a private cloud project requires a significant level and degree of engagement to virtualizes the business environment, and it will require the organization to reevaluate decisions about existing resources. When it is done right, it can have a positive impact on a business, but every one of the steps in the project raises security issues that must be addressed in order to avoid serious vulnerabilities.

2.3 SERVICE MODELS

Cloud computing provides three fundamental service models-

2.3.1 Infrastructure as a service (IAAS)

In this most basic cloud service model, cloud providers offer computers, as physical or more often as virtual machines, and other resources. IAAS cloud providers supply these resources on demand from their large pools installed in data centers. For wide area connectivity, the Internet can be used or in carrier clouds dedicated virtual private networks can be configured. To deploy their applications, cloud users then install operating system images on the machines as well as their application software. In this model, it is the cloud user who is responsible for patching and maintaining the operating systems and application software. Cloud providers typically bill IAAS services on a utility computing basis, that is, cost will reflect the amount of resources allocated and consumed. IAAS refers not to a machine that does all the work, but simply to a facility given to businesses that offers users the leverage of extra storage space in servers and data centers.

2.3.2 Platform as a service (PAAS)

In the PAAS model, cloud providers deliver a computing platform typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. With some PAAS offers, the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand such that cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually.

2.3.3 Software as a service (SAAS)

In this model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. The cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform on which the application is running. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers simplifying maintenance and support. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. This can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. This process is inconspicuous to the cloud user who sees only a single access point. To accommodate a large number of cloud users, cloud applications can be multitenant, that is, any machine serves more than one cloud user organization. It is common to refer to special types of cloud based application software with a similar naming convention: desktop as a service, business process as a service, test environment as a service, communication as a service. The pricing model for SAAS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user.

2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

Following are the main characteristics of cloud computing-

1) Agility improves.

2) Cost reduction.

3) Device and location independence.

4) Maintenance is easy.

5) Multitenancy enables sharing of resources.

6) Centralization of infrastructure.

7) Peak load capacity increases.

8) Utilization and efficiency improves.

9) Performance is monitored.

10) Increase in productivity.

11) Reliability Increases.

12) Scalability

13) Elasticity

14) On-demand services.

15) Security improvement.

2.5 BENEFITS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

Cloud computing has hell lot of advantages. Some of the advantages of cloud computing are given below-

1) Cost Saving

2) Reliability

3) Manageability

4) Multitenancy

5) Increased productivity

6) Independent devices and locations

7) On demand services

8) Pay per use service

2.6 CHALLENGES OF CLOUD COMPUTING

Some of the challenges that cloud computing has to cover up as soon as possible are-

1) Load balancing

2) Security

3) Limited control to the user.

2.7 APPLICATIONS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

There are huge applications of cloud computing. Cloud computing is everywhere these days. It has been a very important part of the organizations. Some applications are-

1) We are saving our data or information in our e-mails; this is where we are using a cloud.

2) If we are editing a picture online, this is where the cloud computing is being used.

3) When we are backing up our mobile phones contacts, we are using cloud.

4) Whenever we use any software, hardware or platform, that do not belong to us, it means that when these services are provided to us by any third party, we are using cloud computing.

5) Cloud computing is used for saving encrypted passwords.

2.8 LIMITATIONS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

The downside of cloud computing is that we will always have less or limited customization options. Cloud computing is cheaper, and you get whatever you like. But you cannot have all of what we want. Another issue with cloud computing is the load balancing. Load balancing means that, a cloud has to fulfill all the demands made by its users, but sometimes, the situations occurs where the cloud is not able to respond to each and every user or we can say cloud is not able to respond quickly, this is because of the load that it is getting at a particular span of time, so the ability to balance this load is load balancing. Cloud providers are trying their best to solve this problem, but due to the fact that cloud users are increasing of per day basis, it has become a very difficult task for them. Similarly, the security issue in cloud is present. Although there is a drastic decrease in the security issues, but still there are some issues which are unsolved.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1 Explain the application of computer in multimedia and animation. (07 marks) (DEC 2010)

Q.2 Explain the different types of deployment models of cloud computing. What are the differences between the private and public clouds? (07 marks) (JUNE 2015)

Q.3 What is cloud computing? Explain pros and cons of cloud computing.

(03 marks) (JUNE 2014)

Q.4 Explain cloud infrastructure. Give various cloud deployment model. (07 marks) (JUNE 2014)

Q.5 Define the term cloud computing. (07 marks) (DEC 2013)

Q.6 Explain different types of clouds? Explain pros and cons of cloud computing.

(07 marks) (DEC 2013)

UNIT - 4

1. IT APPLICATION IN E-COMMERCE AND E-GOVERNENCE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

E-Commerce or Electronics Commerce is a methodology of modern business, which addresses the need of business organizations, vendors and customers to reduce cost and improve the quality of goods and services while increasing the speed of delivery. E-commerce refers to the paperless exchange of business information using the following ways:

1) Electronic Data Exchange (EDI)

2) Electronic Mail (e-mail)

3) Electronic Bulletin Boards

4) Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT)

5) Other Network-based technologies

Fig. 1 E – Commerce

1.2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF E- COMMERCE

E-commerce has following types-

1.2.1 BUSINESS – TO – BUSINESS

A website following the B2B business model sells its products to an intermediate buyer who then sells the product to the final customer. As an example, a wholesaler places an order from a company's website and after receiving the consignment, sells the end-product to the final customer who comes to buy the product at one of its retail outlets.

1.2.2 BUSINESS – TO – CONSUMER

A website following the B2C business model sells its products directly to a customer. A customer can view the products shown on the website. The customer can choose a product and order the same. The website will then send a notification to the business organization via email and the organization will dispatch the product/goods to the customer.

1.2.3 CONSUMER – TO – CONSUMER

A website following the C2C business model helps consumers to sell their assets like residential property, cars, motorcycles, etc., or rent a room by publishing their information on the website. Website may or may not charge the consumer for its services. Another consumer may opt to buy the product of the first customer by viewing the post/advertisement on the website.

1.2.4 CONSUMER – TO – BUSINESS

In this model, a consumer approaches a website showing multiple business organizations for a particular service. The consumer places an estimate of amount he/she wants to spend for a particular service. For example, the comparison of interest rates of personal loan/car loan provided by various banks via websites. A business organization that fulfills the consumer's requirement within the specified budget approaches the customer and provides its services.

1.2.5 BUSINESS – TO – GOVERNMENT

B2G model is a variant of B2B model. Such websites are used by governments to trade and exchange information with various business organizations. Such websites are accredited by the government and provide a medium to businesses to submit application forms to the government.

1.2.6 GOVERNMENT – TO – BUSINESS

Governments use B2G model websites to approach business organizations. Such websites support auctions, tenders, and application submission functionalities.

1.2.7 GOVERNMENT – TO – CITIZEN

Governments use G2C model websites to approach citizen in general. Such websites support auctions of vehicles, machinery, or any other material. Such website also provides services like registration for birth, marriage or death certificates. The main objective of G2C websites is to reduce the average time for fulfilling citizen’s requests for various government services.

1.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
1.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF E- COMMERCE

The advantages of e-commerce can be broadly classified into three major categories-

1) Advantages to Organizations

2) Advantages to Consumers

3) Advantages to Society

1.3.1.1 ADVANTAGES TO ORGANIZATIONS

1) Using e-commerce, organizations can expand their market to national and international markets with minimum capital investment. An organization can easily locate more customers, best suppliers, and suitable business partners across the globe.

2) E-commerce helps organizations to reduce the cost to create process, distribute, retrieve and manage the paper based information by digitizing the information.

3) E-commerce improves the brand image of the company.

4) E-commerce helps organizations to provide better customer service.

5) E-commerce helps to simplify the business processes and makes them faster and efficient.

6) E-commerce reduces the paper work.

7) E-commerce increases the productivity of organizations. It supports "pull" type supply management. In "pull" type supply management, a business process starts when a request comes from a customer and it uses just-in-time manufacturing way.

1.3.1.2 ADVANTAGES TO CUSTOMERS

1) It provides 24x7 supports. Customers can enquire about a product or service and place orders anytime, anywhere from any location.

2) E-commerce application provides users with more options and quicker delivery of products.

3) E-commerce application provides users with more options to compare and select the cheaper and better options.

4) A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying, or see the review comments of other customers before making a final purchase.

5) E-commerce provides options of virtual auctions.

6) It provides readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within seconds, rather than waiting for days or weeks.

7) E-Commerce increases the competition among organizations and as a result, organizations provide substantial discounts to customers.

1.3.1.3 ADVANTAGES TO SOCITY

1) Customers need not travel to shop a product, thus less traffic on road and low air pollution.

2) E-commerce helps in reducing the cost of products, so less affluent people can also afford the products.

3) E-commerce has enabled rural areas to access services and products, which are otherwise not available to them.

4) E-commerce helps the government to deliver public services such as healthcare, education, social services at a reduced cost and in an improved manner.

1.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF E- COMMERCE

The disadvantages of e-commerce can be broadly classified into two major categories:

1) Technical disadvantages

2) Non-technical disadvantages

1.3.2.1 TECHNICAL DISADVANTAGES

1) There can be lack of system security, reliability or standards owing to poor implementation of e-commerce.

2) The software development industry is still evolving and keeps changing rapidly.

3) In many countries, network bandwidth might cause an issue.

4) Special types of web servers or other software might be required by the vendor, setting the e-commerce environment apart from network servers.

5) Sometimes, it becomes difficult to integrate an e-commerce software or website with existing applications or databases.

6) There could be software/hardware compatibility issues, as some e-commerce software may be incompatible with some operating system or any other component.

1.3.2.2 NON – TECHNICAL DISADVANTAGES

1) Initial cost: The cost of creating/building an e-commerce application in-house may be very high. There could be delays in launching an e-Commerce application due to mistakes, and lack of experience.

2) User resistance: Users may not trust the site being an unknown faceless seller. Such mistrust makes it difficult to convince traditional users to switch from physical stores to online/virtual stores.

3) Security/ Privacy: It is difficult to ensure the security or privacy on online transactions.

4) Lack of touch or feel of products during online shopping is a drawback.

5) E-commerce applications are still evolving and changing rapidly.

6) Internet access is still not cheaper and is inconvenient to use for many potential customers, for example, those living in remote villages.

1.4 E-COMMERCE IN INDIA

E-Commerce in India is still in nascent stage, but even the most-pessimistic projections indicate a boom. It is believed that low cost of personal computers, a growing installed base for Internet use, and an increasingly competitive Internet Service Provider (ISP) market will help fuel e-commerce growth in Asia’s second most populous nation. This new concept e-commerce is an important for Governing. E-commerce provides multiple benefits to the consumers in form of availability of goods at lower cost, wider choice and saves time. People can buy goods with a click of mouse button without moving out of their house or office. Similarly online services such as banking, ticketing (including airlines, bus, railways), bill payments, hotel booking etc. have been of tremendous benefit for the customers. Most experts believe that overall e-commerce will increase exponentially in coming years. For developing countries like India, e-commerce offers considerable opportunity. Amongst the Asian nations, the growth of e-commerce in India between 1997 and 2003 was highest in India. Indian middle class of 288 million people is equal to the entire U.S. consumer base. This makes India a real attractive market for e-commerce. To make a successful e-commerce transaction both the payment and delivery services must be made efficient. There has been a rise in the number of companies' taking up e-commerce in the recent past. Major Indian portal sites have also shifted towards e-commerce instead of depending on advertising revenue. Many sites are now selling a diverse range of products and services from flowers, greeting cards, and movie tickets to groceries, electronic gadgets, and computers. With stock exchanges coming online the time for true e-commerce in India has finally arrived. On the negative side there are many challenges faced by e-commerce sites in India. The relatively small credit card population and lack of uniform credit agencies create a variety of payment challenges unknown in the United States and Western Europe. Delivery of goods to consumer by couriers and postal services is not very reliable in smaller cities, towns and rural areas. However, many Indian Banks have put the Internet banking facilities in place for the upcoming e-commerce market. The speed post and courier system has also improved tremendously in recent years. Modern computer technology like secured socket layer (SSL) helps to protect against payment fraud, and to share information with suppliers and business partners. With further improvement in payment and delivery system it is expected that India will soon become a major player in the e-commerce market.

1.5 E – SERVICES

E – Service is a highly generic term. It refers to the provision of services through the internet. Here the prefix e refers to the word electronics. E-Service belongs to E – commerce. It means services that are provided to us by internet. Services by internet mean online services. All the facilities, that we have these days, by the means of internet are e – services. The main concept behind e – services is to use the information and communication technologies together in different areas. E – Service can be defined as deeds, efforts or performances whose delivery is mediated by information technology. Such e – service includes the service element of e – tailing, customer support, and service delivery. This definition reflects three main components- service provider, service receiver and the channel of service delivery (technology). Now here the service provider is the one who is providing its services to the society. The service receiver is mainly the clients or people like us, who order online services or products. The third requirement of the e – services is the channel of service. So here, the main channel of service is the internet. Although some other channel of service are also there, like- mobile phone, television, public kiosk centers, telephone, call centers, etc.

1.6 E – COMMERCE SECURITY

E – Commerce security could be regarding the services and products that are available there or it could be regarding the payment issues, or regarding the delivering of the product or services. From the initial stages to the final, the security of the product is always at risk. From the starting stage we mean that, when we are ordering some product online. While we are ordering, we have to give our full details to them, like phone number, address etc. Here is a risk in giving all these information online to some website. It might be possible it get hacked or we have risk that someone can our details public. So the website we are using must have proper security against these types of threats. The next security point comes is the biggest security issue in the world of e – commerce. This security issue is regarding payments. Most of these websites have COD; cash on delivery options now, and mostly people prefer that option only, and it is only because of the security issues in the payments. Here someone can hack our account details, or passwords, which could lead to stealing of money from our accounts. Or there could also be a possibility that some website is fake and if we make online payment than our money is credited to some other account. Mostly people fear to use the online payment modes and prefer the COD mode for the payments of the products or services.

1.7 INTERNET SECURITY AND ETHICS

Security is an essential part of any transaction that takes place over the internet. Customers will lose his/her faith in e-business if its security is compromised. Following are the essential requirements for safe e-payments/transactions:

1) Confidentiality - Information should not be accessible to an unauthorized person. It should not be intercepted during the transmission.

2) Integrity - Information should not be altered during its transmission over the network.

3) Availability - Information should be available wherever and whenever required within a time limit specified.

4). Authenticity - There should be a mechanism to authenticate a user before giving him/her an access to the required information.

5) Non-Repudiability - It is the protection against the denial of order or denial of payment. Once a sender sends a message, the sender should not be able to deny sending the message. Similarly, the recipient of message should not be able to deny the receipt.

6) Encryption - Information should be encrypted and decrypted only by an authorized user.

7) Auditability - Data should be recorded in such a way that it can be audited for integrity requirements.

1.8 TECHNICAL ISSUES

1) Lack of IT Skill

2) High cost of internet

3) Heterogamous data

4) Lack of IT Standards

5) Software licenses

6) Dependence on technology

7) Hardware availability of same standard

1.9 SOCIAL ISSUES

E – Commerce is very popular, and has become a virtual main street of the world. But it still has many issues with it. These issues could be regarding security or product or it can be any other type of issue. Some of the social issues of e – commerce are as follows-

1) Security and Privacy Issue – It is the most important issue in e – commerce, because without this, the customer will not trust the e – commerce and will not going to use it. When a person is satisfied with the security terms and conditions than only he/she will take interest in buying products online.

2) Product Quality – The next issue is regarding the quality of the product. The customer is not aware about the quality of the product, as he/she can only see the picture of the product, and a picture does not define the quality. The quality can be good but it is also possible that it is not good at all. Even sometimes it is also possible that picture shown on the website regarding a product would be false.

3) Assurance – Here the assurance is required by the customer that he/she will get the product. It could also be possible that after getting the payment, the supplier will not deliver the product to the customer or may not deliver the right product to the customer.

4) Market price is not known – We as customers do not know the actual market price of the product, so it might be possible that the seller on a particular website is selling it on the price which is double or triple of the actual market price.

5) Shipping issues – Shipping means sending the product to the buyer from the seller. It could also create issues as if the seller lost the buyer’s address details, or if the seller is not maintaining the data securely, etc. The shipment also requires proper management of the data and that to also with proper security measures.

2. E - GOVERNENCE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

E-governance, meaning ‘electronic governance’ is using information and communication technologies at various levels of the government and the public sector and beyond, for the purpose of enhancing governance. “E-governance is the public sector’s use of information and communication technologies with the aim of improving information and service delivery, encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process and making government more accountable, transparent and effective. E-governance involves new styles of leadership, new ways of debating and deciding policy and investment, new ways of accessing education, new ways of listening to citizens and new ways of organizing and delivering information and services. E-governance is generally considered as a wider concept than e-government, since it can bring about a change in the way citizens relate to governments and to each other. E-governance can bring forth new concepts of citizenship, both in terms of citizen needs and responsibilities. Its objective is to engage, enable and empower the citizen.”

2.2 CHALLENGES

Word governance connects the process of decision-making and the process of which decisions are implemented. Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, International Governance, National Governance and Local Governance it encompasses the entire process of public ad-ministration, the process underlying the formulation of public policies. The HRD efforts required for re-skilling the Govt. machinery priority nation efficient management of public resource and above all re-designing the various instruments use to realize the con-cept of a welfare state.

Challenges are faced in computerize operating and maintenance of system.

1) Performance implications of entrepreneurship strategies.

2) Implementing entrepreneurial strategies.

3) New venture strategies

4) Performance implications of strategic entrepreneurship

5) The interaction between strategic management and entrepreneurship

2.3 APPLICATIONS

Introduction of E-Governance is the key to making information technology (IT) relevant to ordinary citizens. Governance is a centre which changes how citizens relate to govt. as much as it changes how citizens relate to each other. The architecture should be able to provide the capabilities to the Govt.

1) To provide to citizen, secure and easy access to the key ser-vices through the e-governance infrastructure any time any place using any service.

2) To give to the citizen a unified and simplified view of Govt. ser-vices and information.

3) To allow Govt. employees access to relevant information across all its offices efficiently.

4) To unable future of governance application a consistent and open mechanism of an interoperating with Govt. services.

2.4 ADVANTAGES

1) Easy to use

2) Time Saving

3) 24x 7 supports

4) More information regarding the service

5) Provides more options

6) You do not need to travel anywhere, so decreases the traffic as well as air pollution

7) Enables rural area to use services

8) More improved services

9) Services at a reduced cost

3. CASE STUDY

3.1 CASE STUDY OF MP – ONLINE
3.1.1 INTRODUCTION

State governments all across the country are leveraging Information and Communication Technology (ICT) enabled strategies for ensuring efficiency, transparency and accountability in the process of service delivery. A key ICT model being used is the development of online portals for rendering web based services to citizens. The MPOnline portal of the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) represents the successful usage of this model for delivering public services to citizens at their door steps. MPOnline stands for 'MPOnline Information for Citizen Empowerment' and is a public-private intervention between the GoMP and Tata Consultancy Services (TCS).

The portal offers a dynamic mode of service delivery through a network of franchises registered as kiosks/Common Service Centres (CSCs) run by small entrepreneurs and a direct login facility on the portal. Keeping the digital divide in mind, the Government of MP has designed the mechanism of ‘Assisted Access’ to effectively deliver services to the population that does not have IT literacy.

The combination of these two methods helps the portal extend its reach to all citizens in the urban as well as rural areas of the state. MPOnline runs on a revenue generating model and hence a payment mechanism has been integrated with the operations of the portal. A revenue generating approach combined with the BOOT (Build-Own-Operate-Transfer) model ensures the financial sustainability of the initiative. Strength of the BOOT model is that it facilitates a convenient division of labour with technical management being handled by TCS and strategic direction being provided by the Government of MP.

3.1.2 OBJECTIVE

MPOnline is a realization of the overall objective of the Government of Madhya Pradesh to provide a wide spectrum of its services to citizens at their door steps. The initiative aims to make public services citizen-centric by leveraging ICT tools to bring in accountability and transparency in delivery system. It also aims to re-engineer administrative processes and make them time and cost saving and enhance the efficiency of service providers.

3.1.3 SERVICES OFFERED

MPOnline hosts a number of Government to Citizens (G2C), Government to Business (G2B), and Government to Government (G2G) services. (For examples of services, see Annexure I).

The spectrum of services vary from application for a birth/death certificate through Municipal corporations, applying for X and XII MP Board of Secondary Education Exam, applying for professional examinations through Professional Examination Boards, payment of insurance/electricity/phone bills , ticket reservation through MP Tourism Department and so on. Additionally the portal provides the facility for online counseling for students of B.Ed/ ITI/DME/DTE. An online registration of contractors has also been initiated for the first time in the country through the portal in collaboration with the Madhya Pradesh Public Works Department (MPPWD).

The portal also delivers a number of services meant specifically for rural citizens namely registration of farmers for wheat procurement, application for a temporary agriculture connection for farmers, and private X and XII board exams through MP Board of Secondary Education and MP State of open School. The portal also provides citizens an access to the Human Rights Commission for grievance redressal.

3.1.4 IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES

MPOnline Limited, MP State Electronic Development Corporation, and Government of Madhya Pradesh are responsible for developing and up scaling the MPOnline portal through the entire state of MP.

3.1.5 TECHNOLOGY PARTNERS

Tata Consultancy Services is responsible for developing, designing and maintaining the technological infrastructure required to run the MPOnline portal.

3.1.6 FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

State Bank of India, Union Bank of India, HDFC, AXIS Bank and 52 other banks through BILL Desk have provided a channel for the financial transactions resulting out of delivering services through the portal.

3.1.7 PROJECT FEATURES

The key features of the MPOnline initiative are as under:

1). Service delivery through a network of kiosks and CSCs

2). Service delivery through direct log-in on the MPOnline portal <http://www.mponline.gov.in/portal/index.aspx?langid=en-US#>

3). Revenue generating financial model

4). Project management and evaluation team

3.2 CASE STUDY OF IRCTC
3.2.1 INTRODUCTION

Indian railway is the world’s second largest railway network with nearly 7,000 stations and 72,000 miles of track. Every day, the railway carries over 23 million passengers on more than 12,000 trains. Passengers have always been able to purchase reserved tickets at railway stations often waiting in long queues. In 2002, The Indian Rail Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC), designed an internet based ticketing system. Initially, tickets were delivered by courier to customers and in they moved to a completely web based e – ticketing system where tickets could be printed using a web based application. In the beginning, the e – ticketing system generated around 100 e – tickets a day, but over the years demand has grown to where the system generates approximately 500,000 tickets per day.

3.2.2 CHALLENGES

There are still many challenges in front of IRCTC that have to be solved within a small span of time. Some of these challenges are given below-

1). System Improvement – IRCTC has to improve its system with respect to performance. Its performance during peak hours or we can say during the tatkal hours is not satisfactory at all. Tatkal hours means the time decided by the IRCTC to book urgent tickets just a day before journey. At this time mostly the IRCTC system does not respond at all, sometimes it responds very late, here the response time could be from a minute to even up to 15-20 minutes. Sometimes booking a ticket in tatkal can take up to 20minutes and sometimes you fail to book the ticket.

2). Load Balancing – Load balancing means how a server handles the load or we can say the number of requests made to it concurrently. It is a very important challenge for the IRCTC. Usually what we have seen that, sometimes the IRCTC works amazingly fast, and sometime it is slow to load. This is because of the number of requests it is getting from the users at a given time. When the load is less it works just perfectly. But when the load is high it does not respond at all. IRCTC fails to respond as the number of users reaches 40,000, at same time. So IRCTC needs to improve it according to the demand of the users. Now the users of IRCTC are increasing rapidly, so according to that, the load balancing facilities also need to be improved.

3.2.3 SOLUTION

In 2013, IRCTC hired Centre for Railway Information System (CRIS) to complete the work. CRIS experts had already determined that simply adding new hardware would not solve the issues. They designed a completely new application but realized they also needed to incorporate technology that would enable the new e – ticketing system to manage huge concurrent workloads, migrate 3 million users and provide dynamic load balancing to seamlessly manage demand at peak hours.

After evaluating a variety of options, CRIS IT leaders chose to base their application on a distributed in – memory database. The CRIS team designed their new e – ticketing system around the share – nothing distributed architecture to improve load balancing at the web and application tiers. The system is designed so that each layer provides scalability and high availability and all computing – intensive functions and operational data are served through multiple nodes of the distributed in – memory operational database rather than having to query the back – office reservation system.

CRIS initiated a pilot of the new e – ticketing system in 2014, successfully migrated all 3 million users and then launched the system officially in the same year with the difference of 1 month.

CRIS uses distributed in – memory to support high concurrent transactions for reservations and ticket purchases in the newly launched Indian Railways next generation features have helped to increase the capacity and availability of the service.

In the next phase of development, CRIS is looking to make further improvements to its e – ticketing infrastructure by possibly implementing an e – wallet solution, which will help reduce dependence on external payment systems linked to banks.

3.2.4 BENEFITS

The benefits of hiring CRIS are as follows-

1) Now it supports more than 200,000 concurrent purchases without impacting system performance.

2) Provide stable performance to book approximately 150,000 tickets per hour, compared to 60,000 in the old system.

3) Transformed customer experience so reservation transactions complete in seconds instead of 15 minutes.

4) Shifted online purchasing from 50% of tickets sold to 65%, boosting revenue generated from e – ticket sales to INR600 million daily.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1 Discuss computer applications in E – Business (07 marks) (DEC 2012, JUNE 2011)

Q.2 Write a brief note on network security and E – Commerce. (07 marks) (DEC 2012)

Q.3 Write a note on network security. (03 marks) (JUNE 2011, JUNE 2013)

Q.4 What is e – commerce? Explain the role of networking in e – commerce.

(07 marks) (DEC 2010)

Q.5 Briefly describe the threats to network security. (07 marks) (JUNE 2012)

Q.6 Discuss the major ethical issues in the field of computing? (07 marks) (JUNE 2013)

UNIT- 5

1. SOCIAL IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Social impact of information technology means where the information technology is being implemented in the social life. There are many things where the information technology is making its impact on our daily life. Now the question is what is information technology?

Information technology is a stream which deals with computers to store, retrieve and transmit information. The acquisition, processing storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronic based combination of computing and telecommunication are its main fields. Some of the modern and emerging fields of information technologies are next generation web technologies, bioinformatics, cloud computing, global information system, large scale knowledge basis etc. are mainly driven in the field of computer science.

Social impacts of information technology-

1). IT in Education – Students has many opportunities to learn the basic computer skills to facilitate their learning.

2) IT at Home – Personal computers

3) IT in Public Places – The public can obtain information from the internet more conveniently. Ex- Billing Machines, ATMs.

4) IT in Business – Office automation helps office workers improve working efficiency productivity, data security and communication with others.

5) E – Commerce – Refers to commercial activities carried out in an electronic network.

6) IT in Government – In use in UID project, where it contains personal data, templates of thumb prints and photograph of card holder. Information stored is encrypted with high security.

7) Railway Bookings – Helps in booking the tickets online.

8) Bill Payments – Reduces the physical movement of people for paying bills.

1.2 SOCIAL USES OF WORLD WIDE WEB

We are as societies, almost everywhere, swept up in a sea of change which is continually transforming our perception of the world we live in. The internet has transformed relationship between consumers and brands, citizens and governments, and how interacts with each other on a basic human level. At its purest the internet has given us: the ability to share ideas; a better understanding of people; deeper connections; and a greater culture of meritocracy. We are now living in a time where opinion, innovation, and authenticity are more readily shared, celebrated and prevalent than ever before.

The internet has expanded the ways we interact both as individuals and groups. Communities are no longer limited by their location and this has had a profound impact on the dissemination of ideas. Nowhere is this more visible than the democratizing impact social media has had on political activism. Beyond media outlets, social is the new medium for discovering information, especially from those at the forefront of major crises. This democratization will directly influence the way in which we better inform and shape personal opinion about issues.

The notion of the existential millennial is a product of the internet. Young people are now acutely aware of their desire to make an impact and this is a by – product of the proliferation of knowledge through the internet. The internet celebrates knowledge unashamedly and this will continue to empower people to expand their understanding of the world, helping refine their abilities to make the impact they desire.

We rely heavily on the World Wide Web because it’s a readily available source of information that helps makes our lives easier. In this way, we have digitized our lives and Google et. al., now have access to world wide data that helps create new insights into people’s lives.

Business no longer needs to invest in bricks and mortar operations if they want to become key players. Internet based companies are now successfully disrupting and challenging sectors traditionally dominated by established institutions. Where once challenger brands did not have the capacity to stake a claim, scale for these internet companies is now only another server away.

The World Wide Web has genuinely revolutionized our lives and we are experiencing dramatic social change on a scale. When we go through such seminal and rapid evolution, it is easy to be overly seduced by the thing that is changing us. But although the internet and World Wide Web may have fundamentally changed technology and media, human nature is slower to evolve.

2. SOCIAL NETWORKING SERVICES

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Social Networking Services (SNS) are changing the ways in which people use and engage with the internet and with each other. Young people particularly are quick to use the new technology in ways which increasingly blur the boundaries between their online and offline activities. Social networking services are also developing rapidly as technology changes with new mobile dimensions and features. Children and young people within the UK, who have grown up taking the internet and mobile technologies for granted, make up a significant segment of “the beta generation”, - the first to exploit positive opportunities and benefits of new and emerging services, but also the first to have to negotiate appropriate behaviors within new communities, and to have to identify and manage risk.

While the number of visitors to social networking sites is increasing, so too are the numbers of new services being launched, along with the number of longstanding (within the relatively brief lifespan of the internet) websites that are adding, developing or refining social network service features or tools. The ways in which we connect to social networking services are expanding too. Games-based and mobile phone-based social networking services that interact with existing web-based platforms, or with new mobile-focused communities, are rapidly developing areas.

Given the speed with which the online social networking landscape is developing, Social networking services necessarily refers here to the breadth of existing services, the place of existing services within the history of internet technologies and services, and the rapid development of new tools and practices.

Social networking services can be broadly defined as internet- or mobile-based social spaces designed to facilitate communication, collaboration, and content sharing across networks of contacts.

They allow users to manage, build and represent their social networks online. They are usually (but not always) made up of other individuals; they might also include the profiles of events, companies, even political parties. They may let you add anyone in the network as your "friend" or contact, or they might ask for all connections to be agreed by both parties. They typically support the public display of networks - although they may offer privacy restrictions, or facilitate closed communities.

2.2 PRIVACY, SECURITY AND INTEGRITY OF INFORMATION
2.2.1 PRIVACY

Our information on the web is always at risk of being stolen or hack or leakage. The privacy means to control this information from being leaked in public. We all have e – mail accounts, we have some personal data saved on it, and we also have our pictures on social networking sites, we have our mobile numbers registered with some job portals, our addresses given on e – commerce websites, so we always have a risk of the leakage of information. Information privacy is the aspect of IT that deals with the ability an organization or individual has to determine what data in a computer system can be shared with third parties.

Information privacy is the relationship between collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them. Privacy concerns exist whenever personally identifiable information or other sensitive information is collected, stored, used and finally destroyed or deleted – in digital form or otherwise. Improper or non – existent disclosure control can be the root cause for privacy issues. Data privacy issues can arise in response to information from a wide range of sources, such as- Healthcare records, Criminal justice investigations and proceedings, Financial institutions and transactions, Biological traits; such as genetic material, Residence and geographic records, Ethnicity, Privacy breach, Location – bases service and geo location, web surfing behavior or user preferences using persistent cookies.

The ability to control the information one revels about oneself over the internet, and who can access that information, has become a growing concern. These concerns include whether email can be stored or read by third parties without consent, or whether third parties can continue to track the websites someone has visited. Another concern is web sites which are visited collect, store and possibly share personally identifiable information about users. The advent of various search engines and the use of data mining created a capability for data about individuals to be collected and combined from a wide variety of sources very easily. The FTC has provided a set of guidelines that represent widely accepted concepts concerning fair information. Practices in an electronic marketplace called the Fair Information Practice Principles. In order not to give away too much personal information, e – mails should be encrypted.

Email isn’t the only internet use with concern of privacy. Everything is accessible over the internet nowadays. However a major issue with privacy relates back to social networking. For example, there are millions of users on Facebook and regulations have changes. People may be tagged in photos or have valuable information exposed about themselves either by choice or most of the time unexpectedly.

2.2.2 SECURITY

Data security refers to protective digital privacy measures that are applied to prevent unauthorized access to computers, databases and websites. Data security also protects data from corruption. Data security is the main priority for organizations of every size and genre. Data security is also known as information security or computer security.

Examples of data security technologies include software/hardware disk encryption, backups, data masking and data erasure. A key data security technology measure is scrambling, where digital data, software/hardware, and hard drives are scrambles and rendered unreadable to unauthorized users and hackers. Some data security technologies are as follows-

1) Disk Encryption – Disk encryption refers to encryption technology that encrypts data on a hard disk drive.

2) Software/Hardware – Software based security solutions encrypts the data to protect it from theft. Hardware based security offers an alternative to software only computer security.

3) Backups – Backups are used to ensure data which is lost can be recovered from another source.

4) Data Masking – Data masking of structured data is the process of masking specific data within a database table or cell to ensure that data security is maintained and sensitive information is not exposed to unauthorized personnel.

5) Data Erasure – Data erasure is a method of software based overwriting that completely destroys all electronic data residing on a hard drive or other digital media to ensure that no sensitive data leaked when an asset is retried or reused.

2.2.3 INTEGRITY

Integrity is the situation, where an unauthorized user gets access to your message, that is someone other than the receiver and the sender itself, and is able to manipulate the message and then send it to the next node, i.e; the receiver side. Integrity can be very harmful sometimes. Let us take an example of transferring some amount from a back account to another account, let the money to be transferred be Rs. 5000/-, now let the integrity takes place after the sender has sent the request to transfer Rs. 5000/- from account A to account B. Now possibilities that could take place due to integrity are- firstly, the unauthorized user can manipulate the amount from being Rs. 5000/- to Rs. 50000/-, secondly, that unauthorized user can manipulate the account details, from being account A to account B to account A to account C. This kind of situation is very dangerous. So the security measures for integrity are must. Firstly, no one should be able to view the message apart from sender and receiver. Secondly, no other person than the sender himself should be able to manipulate the message. Proper security against this is very much in need.

2.3 IT ENABLED SERVICES AND CAREERS
2.3.1 IT ENABLED SERVICES

IT is information technology and ITES is information technology enabled services. ITES is form of outsource services which has the involvement of IT in different fields like Finance & Banking, Insurance, Telecommunication etc. ITES refers to the outsourcing of numerous processes in which the provider utilizes telecommunication technologies and the internet to provide those services, mainly for companies in non – information technology fields. It covers a wide range of areas such as manufacturing, healthcare, banking, finance and telecommunication, insurance. Some of the services provided are the call center services, payroll, medical transcription, bio – tech research, insurance claims and credit card processing. Other services include customer care, human resources administration, web marketing, back – office data processing and accounting.

It has been an extremely fast – growing global industry, and many businesses and large companies frequently outsource services to ITES providers in other countries. The company saves a substantial amount of money on costs. It also helps the country that provides the offshore service, because it creates a large number of jobs. This boosts the economic progress of the country providing the service. ITES providers help global corporations meet their business goals and provide a valuable service with the aid of information technology.

Aside from low costs, companies also get to work with firms in developing countries that feature intelligent English – speaking labor force and whose IT infrastructure meets global standards. Many ITES providers offer services around the clock and seek to integrate more services in one delivery mechanism. A corporation can be classified as an ITES company if it outsources services through the internet and other electronic means of communication and utilizes information technology from the initial process specification stage to the final delivery of the service.

2.3.2 CAREERS IN ITES

There is a huge number of job options for you if you want to join the ITES company. As we all know that IT companies are those which do projects related to programming, testing, database and other projects related works like TCS, Wipro and INFOSYS are IT companies. But these companies are not self sufficient in completing their work so they need some help in documentation and other not so technical stuff. Now here the role of ITES comes into play. Since these companies are not able to do all this non – technical work by themselves, they need help, and this help is given to them by ITES companies. ITES companies are those which provide this non – technical but must needed services to the customers of these IT companies. You all must have heard the terms like – call centers, BPOs, KPOs, all these are ITES companies. So the career options in ITES sector are in the field of, BPOs, KPOs, call centers, back – office work, accounting work, customer cares, insurance, banking, finance, healthcare etc. This is one of the highest job producing sectors these days. So career in the sector is a good option.

2.4 CAREER IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

There are too many options for having a career in IT. There are approximately 70 job titles in IT. You can join an IT firm with many options to be exploding in near future for you. As the experience goes up, the post, salary everything will be better within no time. Some of the job titles under IT are- developers, analysts, application engineers, technology officer, information officer, system manager, data quality manager, customer support administrator, DBA, desktop support, front – end developer, IT support manager, IT coordinator, IT manager, help desk, network engineer, programmer, security specialist, software engineer, web developer, system designer, testing engineer, etc.

2.5 CASE STUDY ON NPTEL
2.5.1 INTRODUCTION

NPTEL stands for NATIONAL PROGRAMME on TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED LEARNING. NPTEL was founded by IISc and IIT. IISc stands for Indian Institute of Science and IIT stands for Indian Institute of Technology. It is a project funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, that provides e – learning through online web and video courses in Engineering, Sciences, Technology, Management and Humanities. NPTEL is a curriculum building exercise and is directed towards providing learning materials in science and engineering by adhering to the syllabi of All India Council for Technical Education and the slightly modified curricula of major affiliating universities. It has developed curriculum based video courses and web based e – courses targeting students and faculty of institutions offering UG engineering programs.

2.5.2 ABOUT THE COURCES

NPTEL provides free online courseware in the form of web courses and video lectures. These lectures utilize a multitude of facilities of the video medium such as chalk and talk, table writing, power point, two and three dimensional animations, interactive codes, etc. Each course comprises approximately 40 video lectures of about 1 hour duration. An online discussion forum is incorporated wherein students can post and review questions. Wherever applicable, course assignments, handouts, self – evaluation tasks, etc have been integrated. Workshops are routinely conducted for institutes, students, mentors, etc. under the auspices of NPTEL.

2.5.3 DISCIPLINES

The disciplines that are covered under the NPTEL are- aerospace engineering, atmospheric science, basic courses, civil engineering, computer science and engineering, electrical engineering, electronics and communication engineering, engineering design, environmental engineering, general, biotechnology, chemical engineering, chemistry and biochemistry, mathematics, mechanical engineering, metallurgy and material science, mining engineering, ocean engineering, physics, humanities and social science, textile engineering, management.

2.5.4 SPEECH TO TEXT TRANSCRIPTION

Text transcription of all the video lectures is available on the official NPTEL website in the following formats-

1) Audio file (mp3 format)

2) Transcript (pdf format)

3) Subtitles to all videos.

2.5.6 ACCESS TO COURSES

The online courseware provided by NPTEL is free. One may access these courses utilizing any of the following methods-

1) Through the official NPTEL website. These videos may be downloaded in MP4, FLV and 3gp formats.

2) They can be downloaded using any browser add – ons.

3) Institutions may provide hard disks and receive copies of these courses free of cost at the NPTEL office, IIT Madras.

4) They are broadcast through the Eklavya channel provided by Gyan Darshan.

Individuals who are unable to download lectures due to bandwidth constraints may purchase the video courses in DVDs from Bodh Bridge Educational Services Private Limited, Chennai, by paying a nominal fee that covers the cost of 2 DVDs and shipment logistics.

2.5.7 PRATICIPATING INSTITUTIONS

IITs and IIsc have come together to create course contents for NPTEL.

1) IIT, BOMBAY

2) IIT, DELHI

3) IIT, GIWAHATI

4) IIT, KANPUR

5) IIT, KHARAGPUR

6) IIT, MADRAS

7) IIT, ROORKEE

8) IIT, PATNA

9) IISc, BANGALORE

2.5.8 IMPACT OF NPTEL

NPTEL contents are being used by various educational institutions as part of their teaching – learning process. While faculty members are using these contents as part of their lesson plan to teach university curriculum, students are using NPTEL not only to prepare for technical jobs and competitive exams, but also as a platform for constant learning and updating knowledge for the ever changing environment and market realities. NPTEL contents are designed such that they enhance and complement student’s residential learning experience at their given institutions.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1 Explain the reasons for cyber crimes? How cyber crimes are different from conventional crimes? Explain different types of cyber crimes? (14 marks) (JUNE 2015)